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SDOH-4.2.1 Data Details

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SDOH-4.2.1 Proportion of all households that spend more than 50% of income on housing

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

Data Source: 
American Housing Survey
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
Baseline (Year): 
15.5 (2007)
Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: 
This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Target-Setting Method Justification: 
Housing costs are associated with health outcomes and are influenced by a number of complex contextual factors. The objective will be tracked for informational purposes.

Number of households whose monthly housing cost was 50% or more of current income.


Total occupied units

Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
Not applicable
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

    From the 2007 American Housing Survey:


    What amount do you spend on rent or mortgage payments?


    What was your_NAME TOTAL income since 12 Months prior to date of interview? [If income was a loss, precede amount with a '–'; Enter 99999998 for $99,999,998 or more]



    Is address_unit a house, an apartment, a manufactured/mobile home, or some other type of residence?

    1. House
    2. Apartment, flat
    3. Manufactured/mobile home with NO permanent room added
    4. Manufactured/mobile home WITH one or more permanent rooms added
    5. HU in nontransient hotel, motel, etc
    6. HU, permanent in transient hotel, motel
    7. HU in rooming house or boarding house
    8. Boat or recreational vehicle
    9. Tent, cave, or railroad car
    10. HU not specified above, specify
    11. Unoccupied site for manufactured/mobile home, trailer, or tent
    12. Group Quarters

    Are there any other living quarters, either occupied or vacant, at this address?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    Is this

    1. Owned or being bought by someone in your household?
    2. Rented?
    3. Occupied without payment of rent?

    Are there any other living quarters, either occupied or vacant at this address?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    Do the occupants or intended occupants of the additional living quarters live separately from all other persons on the property?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    [This other living quarters IS an Extra unit. Do not include members of this unit as members of the current unit. Enter 1 to continue]

    [This is not an Extra unit. Enter 1 to continue]


    Are all of these persons still living or staying at this_that address?

    Who now lives here? [Enter all that apply, separate with commas]

    Do_Does you_NAME usually live here?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    Do_Does you_NAME have some other place where you_he_she usually lives?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    Have I missed any babies or small children?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    (Have I missed) any lodgers, boarders, or persons you employ who live here?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    (Have I missed) anyone who usually lives here but is away now, traveling for work or business, on vacation, or at school or in a hospital?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    Anyone else staying here?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    I have listed... (Do you_both_all usually live here?)

    1. Yes
    2. No

    Who does not usually live here? [Enter up to 6 that apply, separate with commas]

    Do_Does you_NAME have some other place where you_he_she usually lives?

    1. Yes
    2. No

    (With whom am I speaking?)

    In whose name is this home? [Enter up to 5 that apply, separate with commas]

Data Collection Frequency: 
Methodology Notes: 

    Household characteristics pertain to the head of household or survey respondent.

    “A household consists of all people who occupy a particular housing unit as their usual residence, or who live there at the time of the interview and have no usual residence elsewhere. The usual residence is the place where the person lives and sleeps most of the time. This place is not necessarily the same as a legal residence, voting residence, or domicile. Households include not only occupants related to the householder but also any lodgers, roomers, boarders, partners, wards, foster children, and resident employees who share the living quarters of the householder. It includes people temporarily away for reasons such as visiting, traveling in connection with their jobs, attending school, in general hospitals, and in other temporary relocations. By definition, the count of households is the same as the count of occupied housing units.”
    — "Appendix A." American Housing Survey. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Census Bureau, 2013.

Caveats and Limitations: 
Note: Data for race, ethnicity, income, and education level are reflected for the head of household or survey respondent who answered for the head of household.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
In 2013 this objective, along with three others, were added as new Developmental objectives for the SDOH topic area. They appeared in the Fall/Winter public comment period, and permanently on in 2014. In 2015, this objective was moved from Developmental to Measurable status.