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NWS-14 Data Details

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NWS-14 Increase the contribution of fruits to the diets of the population aged 2 years and older

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

Data Source: 
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
cup equivalents per 1,000 calories (age adjusted—see Comments)
Baseline (Year): 
0.53 (2005–08)
Target-Setting Method: 
Target-Setting Method Justification: 
A systematic approach was used to set HP2020 targets for all dietary intake objectives. First, a challenging but achievable HP2020 target was considered, at a minimum, to be a shift in the baseline mean intake for the total population: 1) to the 75th percentile value of the baseline usual intake distribution for objectives aiming to increase consumption and 2) to the 25th percentile value for objectives aiming to decrease consumption. The need for any adjustments to these initial targets was then assessed by examining baseline estimates in relation to recommendations, target applicability to subpopulations, the ability to detect change over time, past trends and whether the same trend would be anticipated this decade, and additional considerations for each objective. Based on this approach, the HP2020 target selected for mean fruit consumption was 0.9 cup equivalents (c) per 1,000 calories (about the 75th percentile of the baseline usual intake distribution). Considerations include: Most Americans fall short of recommendations for total fruit intake. The target applies to most subpopulations that will be tracked. More progress can reasonably be expected in this decade. Although fruit intake changed little from 1994–96 to 2003–04, there is a renewed national focus on improving American diets, including increasing fruit consumption and creating social and physical environments and policies that support healthful diets.

Daily intake of cup equivalents of total fruit from a first day 24 hour recall among persons aged 2 years and over


Caloric intake from a first day 24 hour recall divided by 1000 among persons aged 2 years and over

Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Data Collection Frequency: 
Methodology Notes: 

    What We Eat in America (WWEIA) is the dietary intake interview component of NHANES. WWEIA is conducted as a partnership between the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). DHHS is responsible for the sample design and data collection, and USDA is responsible for the survey’s dietary data collection methodology, maintenance of the databases used to code and process the data, and data review and processing. USDA also funds the collection and processing of Day 2 dietary intake data, which are used to develop variance estimates and calculate usual nutrient intakes.

    NHANES included the collection of 1 day of dietary data for all respondents through in-person 24 hour recalls and collection of a 2nd day 24-hour recall by telephone. For the analyses of mean intakes, only the first 24 hour recall is used. Each respondent was asked to recall the kinds and amounts of foods eaten at home and away from home during the previous day. Amounts of foods reported in household measures were then converted to gram amounts. Cup equivalents were calculated using the USDA MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED) for 2001-2004 and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) starting with the 2007-2010 data.

    Breast-fed children are excluded from the numerator and denominator.

    Age Adjustment Notes: 

    This Indicator uses Age-Adjustment Groups:

    • Total: 2-5, 6-11, 12-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Sex: 2-5, 6-11, 12-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Race/Ethnicity: 2-5, 6-11, 12-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Educational Attainment: 25-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Family Income (percent poverty threshold): 2-5, 6-11, 12-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Country of Birth: 2-5, 6-11, 12-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Disability Status: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Health Insurance Status: 2-5, 6-11, 12-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64
    • Marital Status: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Veteran Status: 17-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
    • Obesity Status - Adults: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80+
Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020: 
Healthy People 2010 objective 19-5 assessed the proportion of the population who met a single daily fruit intake recommendation (i.e., at least two daily servings based on the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DGA). Healthy People 2020 objective NWS-14 was modified to take into account the 2010 DGA recommendations for fruit consumption expressed in cup equivalents relative to caloric intake. The objective tracks mean daily intake so that the objective will not need to be modified with changes in the guidelines.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
In 2014, the baseline (2001-2004) data for this objective were revised due to a change in methodology. The data by age group and childhood obesity status are no longer age adjusted. The age adjustment groups were revised from those matching the age specific groups to the one listed above under Age Adjustment for consistency with other objectives using NHANES data. These changes did not affect the baseline value for the overall population so the target remains the same. In addition, the data by obesity status were revised due to an error in reading the initial baseline data into DATA2020 database. The data for children and adults had accidentally been switched. Later in 2014, the baseline was revised from 0.5 to 0.53 cup equivalents per 1,000 calories and the target was revised from 0.9 to 0.90 to expand the number of decimal places displayed from one to two. In 2015, the baseline year was revised from 2001-04 to 2005-08 for consistency with other HP2020 objectives tracked by NHANES. The baseline value remained unchanged. The target was revised from 0.90 to 0.93 to reflect the updated baseline year using the original target setting method.


Additional resources about the objective