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Substance Abuse Data Details

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  • SA-1 Reduce the proportion of adolescents who report that they rode, during the previous 30 days, with a driver who had been drinking alcohol

    About the Data: National

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    No
    Measure: 
    percent
    Baseline (Year): 
    28.3 (2009)
    Target: 
    25.5
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Number of students in grades 9 through 12 who reported riding, at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey, with a driver who had been drinking alcohol

    Denominator: 

    Number of student in grades 9 through 12

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Retained from HP2010 objective
    Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

      From the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System:

      [NUMERATOR:]

      During the past 30 days, how many times did you ride in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol?

      1. Zero times
      2. 1 time
      3. 2 or 3 times
      4. 4 or five times
      5. 6 or more times
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Biennial

    About the Data: State

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the state-level data.

    Data Source: 
    Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
    Measure: 
    percent
    Numerator: 

    Number of students in grades 9 through 12 who reported riding, at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey, with a driver who had been drinking alcohol

    Denominator: 

    Number of student in grades 9 through 12

    Questions Used to Obtain the State Data: 

        From the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        During the past 30 days, how many times did you ride in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol?

        1. Zero times
        2. 1 time
        3. 2 or 3 times
        4. 4 or five times
        5. 6 or more times
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Biennial

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance — United States, 2009. Surveillance Summaries, June 4, 2010. MMWR 2010;59(No. SS-5).
  • SA-2 Increase the proportion of adolescents never using substances

    • SA-2.1 Increase the proportion of at risk adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who, in the past year, refrained from using alcohol for the first time

      About the Data: National

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      85.6 (2008)
      Target: 
      94.2
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who never used alcohol in their lives prior to the past year and refrained from alcohol use in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who never used alcohol in their lives prior to the past year

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Adapted from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR AND DENOMINATOR:]

        For persons aged 12 to 17 years:

        Have you ever, even once, had a drink of any type of alcoholic beverage? Please do not include times when you only had a sip or two from a drink.

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Think about the first time you had a drink of an alcoholic beverage. How old were you the first time you had a drink of an alcoholic beverage? Please do not include any time when you only had a sip or two from a drink.

        Did you first have a drink of an alcoholic beverage in [CURRENT YEAR - 1] or [CURRENT YEAR]?

        1. CURRENT YEAR - 1
        2. CURRENT YEAR

        In what month in [CURRENT YEAR] did you first have a drink of an alcoholic beverage?

        1. January
        2. February
        3. March
        4. April
        5. May
        6. June
        7. July
        8. August
        9. September
        10. October
        11. November
        12. December
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        This measure tracks continued abstinence from alcohol among persons aged 12 to 17 who were at risk for initiation of alcohol use. "At risk for initiation' is defined as persons who did not use alcohol in their lifetime or used alcohol for the first time in the past year.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed for country of birth and geographic location due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.
      Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020: 
      This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objective 26.9a in that the Healthy People 2010 objective tracked the average age person aged 12 to 17 used alcohol for the first time, while this objective tracks continued abstinence from alcohol among persons aged 12 to 17 who were at risk for initiation of alcohol use.

      About the Data: State

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the state-level data.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Measure: 
      percent
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who never used alcohol in their lives prior to the past year and refrained from alcohol use in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who never used alcohol in their lives prior to the past year

      Questions Used to Obtain the State Data: 

          From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

          [NUMERATOR AND DENOMINATOR:]

          For persons aged 12 to 17 years:

          Have you ever, even once, had a drink of any type of alcoholic beverage? Please do not include times when you only had a sip or two from a drink.

          1. Yes
          2. No

          Think about the first time you had a drink of an alcoholic beverage. How old were you the first time you had a drink of an alcoholic beverage? Please do not include any time when you only had a sip or two from a drink.

          Did you first have a drink of an alcoholic beverage in [CURRENT YEAR - 1] or [CURRENT YEAR]?

          1. CURRENT YEAR - 1
          2. CURRENT YEAR

          In what month in [CURRENT YEAR] did you first have a drink of an alcoholic beverage?

          1. January
          2. February
          3. March
          4. April
          5. May
          6. June
          7. July
          8. August
          9. September
          10. October
          11. November
          12. December
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

          This measure tracks continued abstinence from alcohol among persons aged 12 to 17 who were at risk for initiation of alcohol use. "At risk for initiation' is defined as persons who did not use alcohol in their lifetime or used alcohol for the first time in the past year.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed for country of birth and geographic location due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 85.8 to 69.0 percent. The target was adjusted from 94.4 to 75.9 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2014, the baseline was revised from 69.0 to 85.6 percent due to a programming error for the original estimate. The target was adjusted from 75.9 to 94.2 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-2.2 Increase the proportion of at risk adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who, in the past year, refrained from using marijuana for the first time

      About the Data: National

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      94.3 (2008)
      Target: 
      96.3
      Target-Setting Method: 
      2 percentage point improvement
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      The baseline of 94.4 percent is already quite high. Further improvement in 10 years is anticipated, justifying a target of 96.4 percent.
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who refrained from marijuana use in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who never used marijuana in their lives prior to the past year

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Adapted from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How old were you the first time you used marijuana or hashish?

      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed for country of birth and geographic location due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.
      Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020: 
      This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objective 26.9b in that the Healthy People 2010 objective tracked the average age persons aged 12 to 17 used marijuana for the first time, while this objective tracks continued abstinence from marijuana among persons aged 12 to 17 who were at risk for initiation of marijuana use.

      About the Data: State

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the state-level data.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Measure: 
      percent
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who refrained from marijuana use in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who never used marijuana in their lives prior to the past year

      Questions Used to Obtain the State Data: 

          From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

          [NUMERATOR:]

          How old were you the first time you used marijuana or hashish?

      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed for country of birth and geographic location due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 94.4 to 86.9 percent. The target was adjusted from 96.4 to 88.9 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2014, the baseline data was revised from 86.9 to 94.3 percent due to a programming error for the original estimate. The target was adjusted from 88.9 to 96.3 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-2.3 Increase the proportion of high school seniors never using substances—Alcoholic beverages

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      27.7 (2009)
      Target: 
      30.5
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 12th grade students who report never using alcohol

      Denominator: 

      Number of 12th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        On how many occasions (if any) have you had alcohol to drink - more than just a few sips.

        • ... in your lifetime?
        • ... during the last 12 months?
        • ... during the last 30 days?

        [Mark one choice for each line.]

        1. 0 occasions
        2. 1-2 occasions
        3. 3-5 occasions
        4. 6-9 occasions
        5. 10-19 occasions
        6. 20-39 occasions
        7. 40 or more
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Students are considered to have never used alcohol if they respond they drank alcohol on 0 occasions in their lifetime. Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-2.4 Increase the proportion of high school seniors never using substances—Illicit drugs

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      53.3 (2009)
      Target: 
      58.6
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 12th grade students who report never using illicit drugs

      Denominator: 

      Number of 12th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        On how many occasions (if any) have you used marijuana (weed, pot) or hashish?

        On how many occasions (if any) have you used LSD (acid)?

        On how many occasions (if any) have you used psychedelics other than LSD (like mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, PCP)?

        On how many occasions (if any) have you taken amphetamines on your own - that is, without a doctor telling you to take them?

        On how many occasions (if any) have you used cocaine (sometimes called "coke," "crack," "rock")?

        On how many occasions (if any) have you used heroin?

        On how many occasions (if any) have you taken narcotics other than heroin on your own-that is, without a doctor telling you to take them?

        On how many occasions (if any) have you taken tranquilizers on your own - that is, without a doctor telling you to take them?

      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Use of any illicit drug includes any use of marijuana, LSD, other hallucinogens, crack, other forms of cocaine, or heroin or any use of other opiates, stimulants, barbiturates, or tranquilizers not under a doctor's orders.

  • SA-3 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of substance abuse

    • SA-3.1 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day—8th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      78.5 (2009)
      Target: 
      86.4
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 8th grade students who report their disapproval of people who take one or two drinks nearly every day

      Denominator: 

      Number of 8th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Individuals differ in whether or not they disapprove of people doing certain things.

        Do YOU disapprove of people doing each of the following?

        Taking one or two drinks nearly every day....

        1. Disapprove
        2. Don't disapprove
        3. Strongly disapprove
        4. Can't say, Drug Unfamiliar
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Disapproval is defined as those who report that they "disapprove" or "strongly disapprove." Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-3.2 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day—10th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      77.6 (2009)
      Target: 
      85.4
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 10th grade students who report their disapproval of people who take one or two drinks nearly every day

      Denominator: 

      Number of 10th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Individuals differ in whether or not they disapprove of people doing certain things.

        Do YOU disapprove of people doing each of the following?

        Taking one or two drinks nearly every day....

        1. Disapprove
        2. Don't disapprove
        3. Strongly disapprove
        4. Can't say, Drug Unfamiliar
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Disapproval is defined as those who report that they "disapprove" or "strongly disapprove." Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-3.3 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day—12th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      70.5 (2009)
      Target: 
      77.6
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 12th grade students who report their disapproval of people aged 18+ years who take one or two drinks nearly every day

      Denominator: 

      Number of 12th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Individuals differ in whether or not they disapprove of people doing certain things.

        Do YOU disapprove of people aged 18+ years doing each of the following?

        Taking one or two drinks nearly every day....

        1. Disapprove
        2. Don't disapprove
        3. Strongly disapprove
        4. Can't say, Drug Unfamiliar
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Disapproval is defined as those who report that they "disapprove" or "strongly disapprove." Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-3.4 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of trying marijuana or hashish once or twice—8th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      75.3 (2009)
      Target: 
      82.8
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 8th grade students who report their disapproval of people who try marijuana once or twice

      Denominator: 

      Number of 8th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Individuals differ in whether or not they disapprove of people doing certain things.

        Do YOU disapprove of people doing each of the following?

        Trying marijuana once or twice....

        1. Disapprove
        2. Don't disapprove
        3. Strongly disapprove
        4. Can't say, Drug Unfamiliar
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Disapproval is defined as those who report that they "disapprove" or "strongly disapprove." Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-3.5 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of trying marijuana or hashish once or twice—10th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      60.1 (2009)
      Target: 
      66.1
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 10th grade students who report their disapproval of people who try marijuana once or twice

      Denominator: 

      Number of 10th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Individuals differ in whether or not they disapprove of people doing certain things.

        Do YOU disapprove of people doing each of the following?

        Trying marijuana once or twice....

        1. Disapprove
        2. Don't disapprove
        3. Strongly disapprove
        4. Can't say, Drug Unfamiliar
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Disapproval is defined as those who report that they "disapprove" or "strongly disapprove." Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Futures Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-3.6 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of trying marijuana or hashish once or twice—12th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      54.8 (2009)
      Target: 
      60.3
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 12th grade students who report their disapproval of people who try marijuana once or twice

      Denominator: 

      Number of 12th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Individuals differ in whether or not they disapprove of people doing certain things.

        Do YOU disapprove of people doing each of the following?

        Trying marijuana once or twice....

        1. Disapprove
        2. Don't disapprove
        3. Strongly disapprove
        4. Can't say, Drug Unfamiliar
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Disapproval is defined as those who report that they "disapprove" or "strongly disapprove." Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
  • SA-4 Increase the proportion of adolescents who perceive great risk associated with substance abuse

    • SA-4.1 Increase the proportion of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years perceiving great risk associated with substance abuse—Consuming five or more alcoholic drinks on a single occasion once or twice a week

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      42.5 (2015)
      Target: 
      46.8
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who reported that they perceived great risk from consuming five or more drinks on a single occasion once or twice a week

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How much do people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when they have five or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage once or twice a week?

        1. No risk?
        2. Slight risk?
        3. Moderate risk?
        4. Great risk?
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Caveats and Limitations: 
      While the question used to obtain baseline data takes into account all kinds of harm, some respondents may focus on physical harm only. Consequently the measure is a very conservative estimate of the perceived harm.
      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 40.5 to 40.0 percent. The target was adjusted from 44.6 to 44.0 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 40.0 to 42.5 percent. The target was also adjusted from 44.0 to 46.8 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-4.2 Increase the proportion of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years perceiving great risk associated with substance abuse—Smoking marijuana once per month

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      27.3 (2015)
      Target: 
      30.0
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who reported that they perceived great risk from smoking marijuana once a month

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How much do people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when smoke marijuana once a month?

        1. No risk?
        2. Slight risk?
        3. Moderate risk?
        4. Great risk?
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Caveats and Limitations: 
      While the question used to obtain baseline data takes into account all kinds of harm, some respondents may focus on physical harm only. Consequently the measure is a very conservative estimate of the perceived harm.
      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 33.9 to 33.4 percent. The target was adjusted from 37.3 to 36.7 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 33.4 to 27.3 percent. The target was also adjusted from 36.7 to 30.0 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-4.3 Increase the proportion of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years perceiving great risk associated with substance abuse—Using cocaine once per month

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      56.7 (2015)
      Target: 
      62.4
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who reported that they perceived great risk from using cocaine once a month

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How much do people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when use cocaine once a month?

        1. No risk?
        2. Slight risk?
        3. Moderate risk?
        4. Great risk?
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Caveats and Limitations: 
      While the question used to obtain baseline data takes into account all kinds of harm, some respondents may focus on physical harm only. Consequently the measure is a very conservative estimate of the perceived harm.
      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 49.7 to 49.4 percent. The target was adjusted from 54.7 to 54.3 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 49.4 to 56.7 percent. The target was also adjusted from 54.3 to 62.4 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
  • SA-5 (Developmental) Increase the number of drug, driving while impaired (DWI), and other specialty courts in the United States

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    No
    Measure: 
    number
    Numerator: 

    Not applicable

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Not applicable
    Methodology Notes: 

      A description of the NADCP was published by the National Drug Court Institute; the education, research, and scholarship affiliate of the National Association of Drug Court Professionals.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Huddleston CW III., Marlowe DB, and Casebolt R. Painting the Current Picture: A National Report Card on Drug Courts and Other Problem- Solving Court Programs in the United States, Vol. II, No. 1. Alexandria, VA: National Drug Court Institute. May 2008. Questions Used To Obtain the National Baseline Data
  • SA-6 Increase the number of States with mandatory ignition interlock laws for first and repeat impaired driving offenders in the United States

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Status of State Ignition Interlock Laws
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    No
    Measure: 
    number
    Baseline (Year): 
    13 (2009)
    Target: 
    51
    Target-Setting Method: 
    Total coverage
    Target-Setting Method Justification: 
    Ignition interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism among impaired driving offenders by 50 to 90 percent when they are in use. Use rates historically have been low. Since 2006, many States have enacted or amended their ignition interlock laws. Currently, all States have enacted an ignition interlock law of some type; 16 States have enacted mandatory interlock laws for all offenders (up from one State in 2006). During this time, interlock use has more than doubled (up from 100,000 in 2006 to 212,000 in 2010). However, many offenders continue to avoid interlock use. Each year in the United States, 1.4 million impaired driving arrests occur. Increases in ignition interlock use rates have been highest in States that have enacted mandatory interlock laws for all offenders.
    Numerator: 

    Number of States with mandatory ignition interlock laws for first and repeat impaired driving offenders

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Not applicable
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      Almost all states have some sort of ignition interlock law. At the launch of HP 2020, Alabama and South Dakota do not have an ignition interlock law. A number of States have mandatory ignition interlock provisions for all offenses. Other States offer a strong incentive to install an interlock device on the first conviction. Hawaii’s mandatory ignition interlock law goes into effect in 2011.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Mothers Against Drunk Driving: Status of State Ignition Interlock Laws. Home page. August 2010.
    2. National Conference of State Legislatures: Issues & Research - Transportation - State Ignition Interlock Laws. Home page. August 2010. Questions Used To Obtain the National Baseline Data
  • SA-7 Increase the number of admissions to substance abuse treatment for injection drug use

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Treatment Episode Data Set
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    Yes
    Measure: 
    number
    Baseline (Year): 
    255,374 (2006)
    Target: 
    280,911
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Number of admissions for injection drug use in substance abuse treatment programs

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Retained from HP2010 objective
    Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

      From the 2008 Treatment Episode Data Set:

      [NUMERATOR:]

      USUAL ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION (OF PRIMARY, SECONDARY, AND TERTIARY SUBSTANCES). These fields identify the usual route of administration of the respective substances.

      1. Oral
      2. Smoking
      3. Inhalation or Injection (IV or intramuscular)
      4. Other
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      The Treatment Episodes Data Set (TEDS) data are not based on a statistical data collection system. TEDS data are continuously submitted to SAMHSA by states from their administrative data systems. The states collect data from substance abuse treatment providers, primarily from publicly-funded treatment programs. Each state uses its own form for collecting information on substance abuse admissions. When data are submitted to SAMHSA, data are matched to the core variables contained in TEDS. There is a considerable time lag between the date of admission and when SAMHSA receives data from each state. TEDS data are limited to information on admissions for persons aged 12 and older. Thus, for example, an individual admitted to treatment twice within a calendar year would be counted as two admissions. TEDS does not include all admissions to substance abuse treatment. It includes facilities that are licensed or certified by the state substance abuse agency to provide substance abuse treatment (or are administratively tracked for other reasons). In general, facilities reporting TEDS data are those that receive state alcohol and/or drug agency funds (including Federal Block Grant funds) for the provision of alcohol and/or drug treatment services. A description of TEDS has been published by SAMHSA.

    Revision History

    Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

    Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    TEDS accepts data revisions from states for admissions occurring in the previous five years. As a result, the number of admissions reported may differ slightly from year to year. To maintain consistency with SAMHSA reports and tables, in 2014 the original baseline was revised from 254,278 to 255,374. The target was adjusted from 279,706 to 280,911 to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). 1998 - 2008. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services, DASIS Series: S-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 09-4471, Rockville, MD, 2010.
  • SA-8 Increase the proportion of persons who need alcohol and/or illicit drug treatment and received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year

    • SA-8.1 Increase the proportion of persons who need illicit drug treatment and received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      18.3 (2015)
      Target: 
      20.1
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who needed and received illicit drug treatment at a specialty facility in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who needed illicit drug treatment in the past year

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Have you ever received treatment or counseling for your use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        During the past 12 months, that is, since [DATE], have you received treatment or counseling for your use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        During the past 12 months when you received treatment, was the treatment for alcohol use only, drug use only, or both alcohol and drug use?

        1. Alcohol use only
        2. Drug use only
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [Problem] in a hospital overnight as an inpatient?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a hospital overnight as an inpatient for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [Problem] in a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where you stayed overnight?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where you stayed overnight for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [problem] in a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Specialty treatment is treatment received at drug or alcohol rehabilitation facilities (inpatient or outpatient), hospitals (inpatient only), or mental health centers. It excludes treatment at an emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, prison or jail, or as an outpatient. An individual is defined as needing treatment for a drug problem if he or she was dependent on or abused drugs or received specialty treatment for drugs in the past 12 months.

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline and target values did not change as a result. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 16.0 to 18.3 percent. The target was also adjusted from 17.6 to 20.1 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-8.2 Increase the proportion of persons who need alcohol and/or illicit drug treatment and received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      10.8 (2015)
      Target: 
      11.9
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who needed and received illicit drugs and/or alcohol treatment at a specialty facility in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who needed illicit drug and /or alcohol treatment in the past year

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Have you ever received treatment or counseling for your use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        During the past 12 months, that is, since [DATE], have you received treatment or counseling for your use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        During the past 12 months when you received treatment, was the treatment for alcohol use only, drug use only, or both alcohol and drug use?

        1. Alcohol use only
        2. Drug use only
        3. Both alcohol and drug use.

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [Problem] in a hospital overnight as an inpatient?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a hospital overnight as an inpatient for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [Problem] in a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where you stayed overnight?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where you stayed overnight for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [problem] in a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Specialty treatment is treatment received at drug or alcohol rehabilitation facilities (inpatient or outpatient), hospitals (inpatient only), or mental health centers. It excludes treatment at an emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, prison or jail, or as an outpatient. An individual is defined as needing treatment for a drug and/or alcohol problem if he or she was dependent on or abused drugs and/or alcohol or received specialty treatment for drugs and/or alcohol in the past 12 months.

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline and target values did not change as a result. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 9.9 to 10.8 percent. The target was also adjusted from 10.9 to 11.9 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-8.3 Increase the proportion of persons who need alcohol abuse or dependence treatment and received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      8.2 (2015)
      Target: 
      9.0
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who needed and received alcohol treatment at a specialty facility in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who needed alcohol treatment in the past year

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Have you ever received treatment or counseling for your use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        During the past 12 months, that is, since [DATE], have you received treatment or counseling for your use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        During the past 12 months when you received treatment, was the treatment for alcohol use only, drug use only, or both alcohol and drug use?

        1. Alcohol use only
        2. Drug use only
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [Problem] in a hospital overnight as an inpatient?

        1. Yes
        2. No
        3. DK/REF

        Was the treatment you received in a hospital overnight as an inpatient for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [Problem] in a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where you stayed overnight?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where you stayed overnight for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use

        During the past 12 months, have you received treatment for your [problem] in a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Was the treatment you received in a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient for your alcohol use, your drug use, or both?

        1. Alcohol use
        2. Drug use
        3. Both alcohol and drug use
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Specialty treatment is treatment received at drug or alcohol rehabilitation facilities (inpatient or outpatient), hospitals (inpatient only), or mental health centers. It excludes treatment at an emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, prison or jail, or as an outpatient. An individual is defined as needing treatment for an alcohol problem if he or she was dependent on or abused alcohol or received specialty treatment for alcohol in the past 12 months.

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline and target values did not change as a result. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised using data from 2015 although they will appear the same (because the US total rounds to the same number). The baseline will remain 8.2 percent and the target will still be 9.0 percent but the baseline year is now 2015.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
  • SA-9 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of persons who are referred for followup care for alcohol problems, drug problems after diagnosis, or treatment for one of these conditions in a hospital emergency department (ED)

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Potential Data Source: 
    National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    No
    Measure: 
    percent
    Numerator: 

    Not applicable

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Not applicable
    Methodology Notes: 

      A description of the NHAMCS was published by NCHS.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Niska R, Bhuiya F, and Xu J. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007 Emergency Department Summary. National health statistics reports; no 26. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010.
  • SA-10 Increase the number of Level I and Level II trauma centers and primary care settings that implement evidence-based alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI)

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    National Trauma Registry System
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    No
    Measure: 
    number
    Baseline (Year): 
    325 (2009)
    Target: 
    358
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Number of hospitals with verified Level I and Level II Trauma Centers successfully meeting criteria for alcohol screening and brief intervention practices established by the American College of Surgeons

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Not applicable
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      A description of alcohol screening and brief intervention practices at US Level I trauma centers was published by American College of Surgeons.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Terrell F, Zatzick DF, Jurkovich GJ, et al. Nationwide survey of alcohol screening and brief intervention practices at US Level I trauma centers. J Am Coll Surg. Nov 2008;207(5):630-638.
  • SA-11 Reduce cirrhosis deaths

    About the Data: National

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Bridged-race Population Estimates
    National Vital Statistics System-Mortality
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    Yes
    Measure: 
    per 100,000 (age adjusted—see Comments)
    Baseline (Year): 
    9.1 (2007)
    Target: 
    8.2
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Number of deaths due to cirrhosis (ICD-10 codes K70, K73-K74)

    Denominator: 

    Number of persons

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Retained from HP2010 objective
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      FOR SINGLE DATA YEARS: Death rates are calculated based on the resident population of the United States for the data year involved. For census years (e.g. 2010), population counts enumerated as of April 1 are used. For all other years, populations estimates as of July 1 are used. Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for years after a census year and match the data year vintage (e.g. July 1, 2011 resident population estimates from Vintage 2011 are used as the denominator for 2011 rates). Intercensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for the years between censuses (e.g. 1991-1999, 2001-2009). Race-specific population estimates for 1991 and later use bridged-race categories.

      Age Adjustment Notes: 

      This Indicator uses Age-Adjustment Groups:

      • Total: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Sex: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Race/Ethnicity: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Country of Birth: <5, 5-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
      • Geographic Location: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Marital Status: 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
    Trend Issues: 
    Mortality data by marital status were not available for 60% of Georgia’s records in 2008 and 94% of Georgia’s records in 2009. Therefore, 2008 and 2009 data by marital status should be interpreted with caution.

    About the Data: State

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the state-level data.

    Data Source: 
    Bridged-race Population Estimates
    National Vital Statistics System-Mortality
    Measure: 
    per 100,000 (age adjusted—see Comments) (age adjusted—see Comments)
    Numerator: 

    Number of deaths due to cirrhosis (ICD-10 codes K70, K73-K74)

    Denominator: 

    Number of persons

    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

        FOR SINGLE DATA YEARS: Death rates are calculated based on the resident population of the United States for the data year involved. For census years (e.g. 2010), population counts enumerated as of April 1 are used. For all other years, populations estimates as of July 1 are used. Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for years after a census year and match the data year vintage (e.g. July 1, 2011 resident population estimates from Vintage 2011 are used as the denominator for 2011 rates). Intercensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for the years between censuses (e.g. 1991-1999, 2001-2009). Race-specific population estimates for 1991 and later use bridged-race categories.

      Age Adjustment Notes: 

      This Indicator uses Age-Adjustment Groups:

      • Total: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Sex: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Race/Ethnicity: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Country of Birth: <5, 5-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
      • Geographic Location: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Marital Status: 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
    Trend Issues: 
    Mortality data by marital status were not available for 60% of Georgia’s records in 2008 and 94% of Georgia’s records in 2009. Therefore, 2008 and 2009 data by marital status should be interpreted with caution.

    Revision History

    Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

    Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    In 2013, rates for 2007–2009 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 and 2010 censuses instead of the postcensal estimates for the denominator to provide more accurate rates for the period. However, the baseline estimate for the total population did not change so the target remained the same. Some baseline estimates for population subgroups were revised. Note that all mortality rates shown here for 2001–2009 (or any subset of those years) are based on intercensal population estimates and may differ from those previously published on the Internet or in print. In 2015, the denominator data source name was revised from Population Estimates to Bridged-Race Population Estimates for Census 2000 and 2010. The numerator data source, baseline estimate, target, and target-setting method remain unchanged. In 2017, the estimates for geographic location were updated to reflect the 2013 urban/rural classification scheme.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports web release; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. Released May, 2010.
  • SA-12 Reduce drug-induced deaths

    About the Data: National

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Bridged-race Population Estimates
    National Vital Statistics System-Mortality
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    Yes
    Measure: 
    per 100,000 (age adjusted—see Comments)
    Baseline (Year): 
    12.6 (2007)
    Target: 
    11.3
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Number of deaths due to drug-induced causes (ICD-10 codes D52.1, D59.0, D59.2, D61.1, D64.2, E06.4, E16.0, E23.1, E24.2, E27.3, E66.1, F11.0-F11.5, F11.7-F11.9, F12.0-F12.5, F12.7-F12.9, F13.0-F13.5, F13.7-F13.9, F14.0-F14.5, F14.7-F14.9, F15.0-F15.5, F15.7-F15.9, F16.0-F16.5, F16.7-F16.9, F17.0, F17.3-F17.5, F17.7-F17.9, F18.0-F18.5, F18.7-F18.9, F19. 0-F19.5, F19.7-F19.9, G21.1, G24.0, G25.1, G25.4, G25.6, G44.4, 62.0, G72.0, I95.2, J70.2-J70.4, L10.5, L27.0, L27.1, M10.2, M32.0, M80.4, M81.4, M83.5, M87.1, R78.1-R78.5, X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, Y10-Y14)

    Denominator: 

    Number of persons

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Retained from HP2010 objective
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      Drug-induced causes of death include not only deaths from dependent and nondependent use of drugs (legal and illegal use), but also poisoning from medically prescribed and other drugs. It excludes accidents, homicides, and other causes indirectly related to drug use. An in-depth description of the "drug-induced causes" classification was published by NCHS.

      FOR SINGLE DATA YEARS: Death rates are calculated based on the resident population of the United States for the data year involved. For census years (e.g. 2010), population counts enumerated as of April 1 are used. For all other years, populations estimates as of July 1 are used. Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for years after a census year and match the data year vintage (e.g. July 1, 2011 resident population estimates from Vintage 2011 are used as the denominator for 2011 rates). Intercensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for the years between censuses (e.g. 1991-1999, 2001-2009). Race-specific population estimates for 1991 and later use bridged-race categories.

      Age Adjustment Notes: 

      This Indicator uses Age-Adjustment Groups:

      • Total: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Sex: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Race/Ethnicity: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Country of Birth: <5, 5-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
      • Geographic Location: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Marital Status: 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
    Trend Issues: 
    Mortality data by marital status were not available for 60% of Georgia’s records in 2008 and 94% of Georgia’s records in 2009. Therefore, 2008 and 2009 data by marital status should be interpreted with caution.

    About the Data: State

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the state-level data.

    Data Source: 
    Bridged-race Population Estimates
    National Vital Statistics System-Mortality
    Measure: 
    per 100,000 (age adjusted—see Comments) (age adjusted—see Comments)
    Numerator: 

    Number of deaths due to drug-induced causes (ICD-10 codes D52.1, D59.0, D59.2, D61.1, D64.2, E06.4, E16.0, E23.1, E24.2, E27.3, E66.1, F11.0-F11.5, F11.7-F11.9, F12.0-F12.5, F12.7-F12.9, F13.0-F13.5, F13.7-F13.9, F14.0-F14.5, F14.7-F14.9, F15.0-F15.5, F15.7-F15.9, F16.0-F16.5, F16.7-F16.9, F17.0, F17.3-F17.5, F17.7-F17.9, F18.0-F18.5, F18.7-F18.9, F19. 0-F19.5, F19.7-F19.9, G21.1, G24.0, G25.1, G25.4, G25.6, G44.4, 62.0, G72.0, I95.2, J70.2-J70.4, L10.5, L27.0, L27.1, M10.2, M32.0, M80.4, M81.4, M83.5, M87.1, R78.1-R78.5, X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, Y10-Y14)

    Denominator: 

    Number of persons

    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

        Drug-induced causes of death include not only deaths from dependent and nondependent use of drugs (legal and illegal use), but also poisoning from medically prescribed and other drugs. It excludes accidents, homicides, and other causes indirectly related to drug use. An in-depth description of the "drug-induced causes" classification was published by NCHS.

        FOR SINGLE DATA YEARS: Death rates are calculated based on the resident population of the United States for the data year involved. For census years (e.g. 2010), population counts enumerated as of April 1 are used. For all other years, populations estimates as of July 1 are used. Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for years after a census year and match the data year vintage (e.g. July 1, 2011 resident population estimates from Vintage 2011 are used as the denominator for 2011 rates). Intercensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for the years between censuses (e.g. 1991-1999, 2001-2009). Race-specific population estimates for 1991 and later use bridged-race categories.

      Age Adjustment Notes: 

      This Indicator uses Age-Adjustment Groups:

      • Total: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Sex: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Race/Ethnicity: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Country of Birth: <5, 5-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
      • Geographic Location: <1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
      • Marital Status: 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
    Trend Issues: 
    Mortality data by marital status were not available for 60% of Georgia’s records in 2008 and 94% of Georgia’s records in 2009. Therefore, 2008 and 2009 data by marital status should be interpreted with caution.

    Revision History

    Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

    Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    In 2013, rates for 2007–2009 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 and 2010 censuses instead of the postcensal estimates for the denominator to provide more accurate rates for the period. However, the baseline estimate for the total population did not change so the target remained the same. Some baseline estimates for population subgroups were revised. Note that all mortality rates shown here for 2001–2009 (or any subset of those years) are based on intercensal population estimates and may differ from those previously published on the Internet or in print. In 2015, the denominator data source name was revised from Population Estimates to Bridged-Race Population Estimates for Census 2000 and 2010. The numerator data source, baseline estimate, target, and target-setting method remain unchanged. In 2017, the estimates for geographic location were updated to reflect the 2013 urban/rural classification scheme.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports web release; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. Released May, 2010.
  • SA-13 Reduce past-month use of illicit substances

    • SA-13.1 Reduce the proportion of adolescents reporting use of alcohol or any illicit drugs during the past 30 days
      LHI

      Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      14.2 (2015)
      Target: 
      12.8
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who reported using any alcohol or illicit drugs during the past 30 days

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Adapted from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Have you ever, even once, had a drink of any type of alcoholic beverage? Please do not include times when you only had a sip or two from a drink.

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last drank an alcoholic beverage?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following questions are asked separately for each illicit drug: marijuana or hashish; cocaine; 'crack'; heroin; LSD, also called 'acid'; PCP, also called 'angel dust' or Phencyclidine; Peyote; Mescaline; Psilocybin; 'Ecstasy', also called MDMA; any other hallucinogens besides the ones that have been listed; Amyl nitrite, 'poppers,' locker room odorizers, or 'rush'; Correction fluid, degreaser, or cleaning fluid; Gasoline or lighter fluid; Glue, shoe polish, or toluene; Halothane, ether, or other paint solvents; Lighter gases, such as butane or propane; Nitrous oxide or 'whippets'; Spray paints; or Other aerosol sprays.]

        Have you ever, even once, used [marijuana or hashish]?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used [marijuana or hashish]?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following: Darvocet, Darvon, or Tylenol with codeine; Percocet, Percodan, or Tylox; Vicodin, Lortab, or Lorcet.]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Darvocet, Darvon, or Tylenol with codeine] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the pain relievers shown below the red line on Card A. [List on Card A: Codeine; Demerol; Dilaudid; Fioricet; Fiorinal; Hydrocodone; Methadone; Morphine; Oxycontin; Phenaphen with Codeine; Propoxyphene; SK-65; Stadol; Talacen; Talwin; Talwin NX; Tramadol; Ultram.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these pain relievers when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the pain relievers shown below the red line on Card A have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other prescription pain reliever, besides the ones shown on Card A, when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription pain reliever that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following tranquilizers: Klonopin or Clonazepam; Xanax, Alprazolam, Ativan, or Lorazepam; Valium or Diazepam.]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Klonopin or Clonazepam] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the tranquilizers shown below the red line on Card B. [List on Card B: Atarax; BuSpar; Equanil; Flexeril; Librium; Limbitrol; Meprobamate; Miltown; Rohypnol; Serax; Soma; Tranxene; Vistaril.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these tranquilizers when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the tranquilizers shown below the red line on Card B have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other tranquilizers, besides the ones shown on Card B, when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription tranquilizer that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following stimulants: Methamphetamine, Desoxyn, or Methedrine; prescription diet pills, such as Amphetamines, Benzedrine, Biphetamine, Fastin, or Phentermine; Ritalin or Methylphenidate.]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Methamphetamine, Desoxyn, or Methedrine] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the stimulants shown below the red line on Card C. [List on Card C: Cylert; Dexedrine; Dextroamphetamine; Didrex; Eskatrol; Ionamin; Mazanor; Obedrin - L.A.; Plegine; Preludin; Sanorex; Tenuate.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these stimulants when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the stimulants shown below the red line on Card C have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other prescription stimulant, besides the ones shown on Card C when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription stimulant that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following prescription sedatives: Methaqualone, Sopor, or Quaalude; barbiturates such as Nembutal, Pentobarbital, Seconal, Secobarbital, or Butalbital; Restoril or Temazepam.]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Methaqualone, Sopor, or Quaalude] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the sedatives shown below the red line on Card D. [List on Card D: Amytal; Butisol; Chloral Hydrate; Dalmane; Halcion; Phenobarbital; Placidyl; Tuinal.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these sedatives when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the sedatives shown below the red line on Card D have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other prescription sedative, besides the ones shown on Card D, when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription sedative that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Leading Health Indicator:
      Methodology Notes: 

        Alcohol or illicit drug use by adolescents aged 12 to 17 years is defined as using at least one of the following substances in the past month: alcohol, marijuana or hashish, cocaine (including "crack"), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any nonmedical use of analgesics, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives. The answers for each of the substances are examined for each respondent. Persons are considered to have used alcohol or illicit drugs if they report use in the past 30 days of any one of the substances.

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.
      Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020: 
      This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objective 26-10a in that objective 26-10a tracked the proportion of adolescents who refrained from alcohol and illicit drug use during the past 30 days. This objective tracks the proportion of adolescents using alcohol and illicit drugs during the past 30 days.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 18.3 to 18.4 percent. The target was adjusted from 16.5 to 16.6 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2017, the baseline was again revised from 18.4 to 14.2 percent. The target was also adjusted from 16.6 to 12.8 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
    • SA-13.2 Reduce the proportion of adolescents reporting use of marijuana during the past 30 days

      About the Data: National

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      6.7 (2008)
      Target: 
      6.0
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who reported using marijuana during the past 30 days

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Have you ever, even once, used [marijuana or hashish]?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used [marijuana or hashish]?

        1. Within the past 30 days -- that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Respondents are considered to have used marijuana or hashish if they report use of either substance in the past 30 days. A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed for country of birth and geographic location due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      About the Data: State

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the state-level data.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Measure: 
      percent
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who reported using marijuana during the past 30 days

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

      Questions Used to Obtain the State Data: 

          From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

          [NUMERATOR:]

          Have you ever, even once, used [marijuana or hashish]?

          1. Yes
          2. No

          How long has it been since you last used [marijuana or hashish]?

          1. Within the past 30 days -- that is, since [DATE]
          2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
          3. More than 12 months ago
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

          Respondents are considered to have used marijuana or hashish if they report use of either substance in the past 30 days. A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed for country of birth and geographic location due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline and target values did not change as a result.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-13.3 Reduce the proportion of adults reporting use of any illicit drug during the past 30 days

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      10.2 (2015)
      Target: 
      9.2
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 18 years and over who report use of any illicit drugs during the past 30 days

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 18 years and over

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        [The following questions are asked separately for each illicit drug: marijuana or hashish; cocaine; 'crack'; heroin; LSD, also called 'acid'; PCP, also called 'angel dust' or Phencyclidine; Peyote; Mescaline; Psilocybin; 'Ecstasy', also called MDMA; any other hallucinogens besides the ones that have been listed; Amyl nitrite, 'poppers,' locker room odorizers, or 'rush'; Correction fluid, degreaser, or cleaning fluid; Gasoline or lighter fluid; Glue, shoe polish, or toluene; Halothane, ether, or other paint solvents; Lighter gases, such as butane or propane; Nitrous oxide or 'whippets'; Spray paints; or Other aerosol sprays.]

        Have you ever, even once, used [marijuana or hashish]?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used [marijuana or hashish]?

        1. Within the past 30 days -- that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following: Darvocet, Darvon, or Tylenol with codeine; Percocet, Percodan, or Tylox; Vicodin, Lortab, or Lorcet]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Darvocet, Darvon, or Tylenol with codeine] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the pain relievers shown below the red line on Card A. [List on Card A: Codeine; Demerol; Dilaudid; Fioricet; Fiorinal; Hydrocodone; Methadone; Morphine; Oxycontin; Phenaphen with Codeine; Propoxyphene; SK-65; Stadol; Talacen; Talwin; Talwin NX; Tramadol; Ultram.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these pain relievers when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the pain relievers shown below the red line on Card A have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other prescription pain reliever, besides the ones shown on Card A, when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription pain reliever that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following tranquilizers: Klonopin or Clonazepam; Xanax, Alprazolam, Ativan, or Lorazepam; Valium or Diazepam]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Klonopin or Clonazepam] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the tranquilizers shown below the red line on Card B. [List on Card B: Atarax; BuSpar; Equanil; Flexeril; Librium; Limbitrol; Meprobamate; Miltown; Rohypnol; Serax; Soma; Tranxene; Vistaril.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these tranquilizers when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the tranquilizers shown below the red line on Card B have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other tranquilizers, besides the ones shown on Card B, when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription tranquilizer that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following stimulants: Methamphetamine, Desoxyn, or Methedrine; prescription diet pills, such as Amphetamines, Benzedrine, Biphetamine, Fastin, or Phentermine; Ritalin or Methylphenidate]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Methamphetamine, Desoxyn, or Methedrine] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the stimulants shown below the red line on Card C. [List on Card C: Cylert; Dexedrine; Dextroamphetamine; Didrex; Eskatrol; Ionamin; Mazanor; Obedrin - L.A.; Plegine; Preludin; Sanorex; Tenuate.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these stimulants when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the stimulants shown below the red line on Card C have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other prescription stimulant, besides the ones shown on Card C when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription stimulant that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago

        [The following question is asked separately for non- medical use of the following prescription sedatives: Methaqualone, Sopor, or Quaalude; barbiturates such as Nembutal, Pentobarbital, Seconal, Secobarbital, or Butalbital; Restoril or Temazepam]

        Have you ever, even once, used [Methaqualone, Sopor, or Quaalude] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Please look at the sedatives shown below the red line on Card D. [List on Card D: Amytal; Butisol; Chloral Hydrate; Dalmane; Halcion; Phenobarbital; Placidyl; Tuinal.] Have you ever, even once, used any of these sedatives when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        Which of the sedatives shown below the red line on Card D have you used when they were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused?

        Have you ever, even once, used any other prescription sedative, besides the ones shown on Card D, when it was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Yes
        2. No

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription sedative that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days - that is, since [DATE]
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Illicit drug use is defined as use of at least one of the following substances in the past month: marijuana or hashish, cocaine (including "crack"), inhalants, hallucinogens (including PCP and LSD), heroin, or any nonmedical use of analgesics, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives. Respondents are considered to have used illicit drugs if they report use in the past 30 days of any of the listed substances.

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline and target values did not change as a result. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 7.9 to 10.2 percent. The target was also adjusted from 7.1 to 9.2 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
  • SA-14 Reduce the proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking of alcoholic beverages

    • SA-14.1 Reduce the proportion of students engaging in binge drinking during the past 2 weeks—high school seniors

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      25.2 (2009)
      Target: 
      22.7
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of 12th grade students who report drinking five or more alcoholic beverages in a row during the 2 weeks prior to the survey

      Denominator: 

      Number of 12th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2009 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Think back over the LAST TWO WEEKS. How many times have you had five or more drinks in a row? (A "drink" is a glass of wine, a bottle of beer, a wine cooler, a shot glass of liquor, or a mixed drink.)

        1. None
        2. Once
        3. Twice
        4. Three to five times
        5. Six to nine times
        6. Ten or more times
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-14.2 Reduce the proportion of students engaging in binge drinking during the past 2 weeks—college students

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      No
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      41.1 (2007)
      Target: 
      37.0
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of college students who report drinking five or more alcoholic beverages in a row during the 2 weeks prior to the survey

      Denominator: 

      Number of college students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2008 Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Think back over the LAST TWO WEEKS. How many times have you had five or more drinks in a row? (A "drink" is a glass of wine, a bottle of beer, a wine cooler, a shot glass of liquor, or a mixed drink.)

        1. None
        2. Once
        3. Twice
        4. Three to five times
        5. Six to nine times
        6. Ten or more times
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. . Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2008. Volume II: College students and adults ages 19-50. NIH Publication No. 09-7403. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2009.
    • SA-14.3 Reduce the proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking during the past 30 days—adults aged 18 years and older
      LHI

      Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      26.9 (2015)
      Target: 
      24.2
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 18 years and over who report having five or more drinks (for men) or four or more drinks (for women) at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other during the 30 days prior to the survey

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 18 years and over

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Adapted from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Women:

        During the past 30 days, that is, since [DATE], on how many days did you have 4 or more drinks on the same occasion? By 'occasion,' we mean at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other.

        Men:

        During the past 30 days, that is, since [DATE], on how many days did you have 5 or more drinks on the same occasion? By 'occasion,' we mean at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other.

      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Leading Health Indicator:
      Methodology Notes: 

        Binge drinking is defined as drinking 5 or more alcoholic beverages for men or 4 or more alcoholic beverages for women at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other during the past 30 days.

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The questions on consumption of four or more drinks on an occasion for females (questions CA12, CA13, and the CA14 series) which were previously used to track this objective have been deleted. New questions which reflects changes to the threshold for binge alcohol use for females and changes to the question CA10 and CA11 series have been added. Improved data quality for females are expected because females will no longer have an opportunity to provide inconsistent answers for their consumption of five or more drinks and their consumption of four or more drinks on an occasion.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.
      Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020: 
      This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objective 26-11c in that objective 26-11c defined binge drinking as 5 or more drinks at one time for all persons while this objective defines binge drinking as 5 or more drinks at one time for men and 4 or more drinks at one time for women.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 27.0 to 27.1 percent. The target was adjusted from 24.3 to 24.4 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2017, the baseline was again revised from 27.1 to 26.9 percent. The target was also adjusted from 24.4 to 24.2 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
    • SA-14.4 Reduce the proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking during the past month—adolescents aged 12 to 17 years

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      5.8 (2015)
      Target: 
      5.2
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who report having five or more drinks (for males) or four or more drinks (for females) at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other during the 30 days prior to the survey

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Adapted from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Males:

        During the past 30 days, that is, since [DATE], on how many days did you have 5 or more drinks on the same occasion? By 'occasion,' we mean at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other.

        Females

        During the past 30 days, that is, since [DATE], on how many days did you have 4 or more drinks on the same occasion? By 'occasion,' we mean at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other.

      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Binge drinking is defined as drinking 5 or more alcoholic beverages for men or 4 or more alcoholic beverages for women at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other during the past 30 days.

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The questions on consumption of four or more drinks on an occasion for females (questions CA12, CA13, and the CA14 series) which were previously used to track this objective have been deleted. New questions which reflects changes to the threshold for binge alcohol use for females and changes to the question CA10 and CA11 series have been added. Improved data quality for females are expected because females will no longer have an opportunity to provide inconsistent answers for their consumption of five or more drinks and their consumption of four or more drinks on an occasion.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.
      Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020: 
      This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objective 26-11d in that objective 26-11d defined binge drinking as 5 or more drinks at one time for all persons while this objective defines binge drinking as 5 or more drinks at one time for males and 4 or more drinks at one time for females.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 9.4 to 9.5 percent. The target was adjusted from 8.5 to 8.6 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 9.5 to 5.8 percent. The target was also adjusted from 8.6 to 5.2 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
  • SA-15 Reduce the proportion of adults who drank excessively in the previous 30 days

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    National Survey on Drug Use and Health
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    Yes
    Measure: 
    percent
    Baseline (Year): 
    27.8 (2015)
    Target: 
    25.0
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Number of persons aged 18 years and over who drank more than two drinks per day on average (for men) or more than one drink per day on average (for women) or who drank 5 or more drinks during a single occasion (for men) or 4 or more drinks during a single occasion (for women) during the past 30 days

    Denominator: 

    Number of persons aged 18 years and over

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Adapted from HP2010 objective
    Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

      From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

      [NUMERATOR:]

      During the past 30 days, on how many days did you drink one or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage?

      • # OF DAYS: [RANGE: 0 - 30]

      On the days that you drank during the past 30 days, how many drinks did you usually have each day? Count as a drink a can or bottle of beer; a wine cooler or a glass of wine, champagne, or sherry; a shot of liquor or a mixed drink or cocktail.

      • # OF DRINKS: [RANGE: 1 - 90]

      During the past 30 days, that is, since [DATE], on how many days did you have 4 or more drinks on the same occasion? By "occasion,' we mean at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other.

      • # OF DAYS: [RANGE: 0 - 30]

      During the past 30 days, that is, since [DATE], on how many days did you have 5 or more drinks on the same occasion? By "occasion,' we mean at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other.

      • # OF DAYS: [RANGE: 0 - 30]
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      Excessive alcohol use, either in the form of heavy drinking (drinking more than two drinks per day on average for men or more than one drink per day on average for women), or binge drinking (drinking 5 or more drinks during a single occasion for men or 4 or more drinks during a single occasion for women).

      In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

      The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

      The questions on consumption of four or more drinks on an occasion for females (questions CA12, CA13, and the CA14 series) which were previously used to track this objective have been deleted. New questions which reflects changes to the threshold for binge alcohol use for females and changes to the question CA10 and CA11 series have been added. Improved data quality for females are expected because females will no longer have an opportunity to provide inconsistent answers for their consumption of five or more drinks and their consumption of four or more drinks on an occasion.

      The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
      http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

      A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

    Trend Issues: 
    Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.
    Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020: 
    This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objectives 26-13a and 26-13b in that the Healthy People 2010 objectives tracked excessive drinking separately for males and females, while this objective tracks excessive drinking for all persons. In addition, the data source has changed: the Healthy People 2010 objectives were tracked using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, NIH, NIAAA) while this objective is tracked using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, SAMHSA).

    Revision History

    Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

    Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 28.1 to 28.2 percent. The target was adjusted from 25.3 to 25.4 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was again revised from 28.2 to 27.8 percent. The target was also adjusted from 25.4 to 25.0 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
  • SA-16 Reduce average annual alcohol consumption

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Population Estimates
    Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    No
    Measure: 
    gallons per person
    Baseline (Year): 
    2.3 (2007)
    Target: 
    2.1
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Number of gallons of ethanol sold in the United States

    Denominator: 

    Number of persons aged 14 years and over

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Retained from HP2010 objective
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Periodic
    Methodology Notes: 

      The number of gallons of ethanol (pure alcohol) sold in the U.S. is used as a proxy for annual consumption of alcoholic beverages. The Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS) makes every effort to obtain alcoholic beverage sales data from all states and the District of Columbia because sales data more accurately reflect actual consumption of alcoholic beverages than do production and shipments data from beverage industry sources. For 2007, AEDS received complete beverage sales and/or tax receipts reports from 29 states for beer, 29 states for wine, and 25 states for spirits. For the remaining states and the District of Columbia, shipments data from beverage industry sources were used for the numerator to calculate per capita consumption. Although sales and tax receipt data tend to provide slightly lower per capita estimates (about .01 to .02 points per capita), the mixed use of data from sales and shipments sources appears to have little effect on overall trends in per capita alcohol consumption. Individuals familiar with survey reports and other scientific literature often are accustomed to the presentation of significance tests, or confidence intervals, on any data comparisons or trends. However, because data presented in this report are based on total actual sales and/or shipments, no measures of statistical significance are provided. Nonetheless, it is important to note that these data are still only estimates and may be subject to reporting error. A description of AEDS was published by NIAAA. The following 31 States provided alcoholic beverage sales data for beer, wine, and/or, spirits for 2007: Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota Texas, Utah, Virginia, Wyoming.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Beverage Information Group. Beer Handbook, 2008. Norwalk, CT: Beverage Information Group, 2008a.
    2. Beverage Information Group. Liquor Handbook, 2008. Norwalk, CT: Beverage Information Group, 2008b.
    3. Beverage Information Group. Wine Handbook, 2008. Norwalk, CT: Beverage Information Group, 2008c
  • SA-17 Decrease the rate of alcohol-impaired driving (.08+ blood alcohol content [BAC]) fatalities

    About the Data: National

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Fatality Analysis Reporting System
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    Yes
    Measure: 
    per 100,000,000 vehicle miles traveled
    Baseline (Year): 
    0.39 (2008)
    Target: 
    0.38
    Target-Setting Method: 
    Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
    Numerator: 

    Number of alcohol related motor vehicle crash deaths reported in FARS

    Denominator: 

    Total vehicle miles traveled

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Adapted from HP2010 objective
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      The Federal Highway Administration estimates total vehicle miles traveled using an algorithm that includes gas sales, vehicle registration, vehicle fuel economy data, and other data from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal crash as alcohol related if either a driver or a nonmotorist has a measurable or estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08 g/dL or above. BAC is measured as a percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood (expressed as grams per deciliter). An elevated BAC level (0.08g/dL and higher) indicates that enough alcohol was consumed by the person tested to impair normal functions. Only deaths that occur within 30 days of the motor vehicle crash are included (less than 2 percent of the total number of deaths occur after 30 days). FARS data are obtained solely from a State's existing documents, including police crash reports, death certificates (coded to ICD-10 V30-V39 [.4-.9], V40-V49 [.4-.9], V50-V59 [.4-.9], V60-V69 [.4-.9], V70-V79 [.4-.9], V81.1, V82.1, V83-V86 [.0-.3], V20-V28 [.3-.9]. V29 [.4-.9], V12-V14 [.3-.9], V19 [.4-.6], V02-V04 [.1, .9], V09.2, V80 [.3-.5], V87 [.0-.8], V89.2), vehicle registration files, and hospital medical reports.

      A description of the FARS data set has been published by NHTSA.

      A description of the primary measurement used to determine the number of Vehicle Miles Traveled annually in the US has been published by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

    About the Data: State

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the state-level data.

    Data Source: 
    Fatality Analysis Reporting System
    Measure: 
    per 100,000,000 vehicle miles traveled
    Numerator: 

    Number of alcohol related motor vehicle crash deaths reported in FARS

    Denominator: 

    Total vehicle miles traveled

    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

        The Federal Highway Administration estimates total vehicle miles traveled using an algorithm that includes gas sales, vehicle registration, vehicle fuel economy data, and other data from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a fatal crash as alcohol related if either a driver or a nonmotorist has a measurable or estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08 g/dL or above. BAC is measured as a percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood (expressed as grams per deciliter). An elevated BAC level (0.08g/dL and higher) indicates that enough alcohol was consumed by the person tested to impair normal functions. Only deaths that occur within 30 days of the motor vehicle crash are included (less than 2 percent of the total number of deaths occur after 30 days). FARS data are obtained solely from a State's existing documents, including police crash reports, death certificates (coded to ICD-10 V30-V39 [.4-.9], V40-V49 [.4-.9], V50-V59 [.4-.9], V60-V69 [.4-.9], V70-V79 [.4-.9], V81.1, V82.1, V83-V86 [.0-.3], V20-V28 [.3-.9]. V29 [.4-.9], V12-V14 [.3-.9], V19 [.4-.6], V02-V04 [.1, .9], V09.2, V80 [.3-.5], V87 [.0-.8], V89.2), vehicle registration files, and hospital medical reports.

        A description of the FARS data set has been published by NHTSA.

        A description of the primary measurement used to determine the number of Vehicle Miles Traveled annually in the US has been published by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

    Revision History

    Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

    Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    In 2014, the baseline was revised from .40 to .38. When the baselines were established the we asked for data rounded to one decimal place. At some later point the guidance changed and we now display rates less that 1.0 with two digits after the decimal place. So the baseline and updates were revised slightly.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Federal Highway Administration. Annual Vehicle Miles Travelled and Related Data: Procedures Used to Derive Data Elements Contained in Highway Statistics Table VM1 for Years 2009 and after and 2007 and 2008 Historical Data. Washington, DC. Available from: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/vm1_methodology_2007.pdf
    2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 2008: A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, March 2010.
  • SA-18 Reduce steroid use among adolescents

    • SA-18.1 Reduce steroid use among 8th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      0.78 (2009)
      Target: 
      Not applicable
      Target-Setting Method: 
      This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      Data from 2009 show that 1.3 percent of 8th graders reported use of steroids in the past year. Because of this extremely low percentage, no target seems reasonable. As the rate approaches zero, the decreases observed would become smaller with each percent reduction. Within a short period of time, the rate would reach a value so near zero that further reductions would be too small to be significant.
      Numerator: 

      Number of 8th grade students who report using steroids in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of 8th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Steroids, or anabolic steroids, are sometimes prescribed by doctors to promote healing from certain types of injuries. Some athletes, and others, have used them to try to increase muscle development. On how many occasions (if any) have you taken steroids on your own--that is, without a doctor telling you to take them?

        • ... in your lifetime?
        • ... during the last 12 months?
        • ... during the last 30 days?

        [Mark one circle for each line. Response categories include:]

        1. 0 occasions
        2. 1-2 occasions
        3. 3-5 occasions
        4. 6-9 occasions
        5. 10-19 occasions
        6. 20-39 occasions
        7. 40 or more
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Students are considered to have used steroids if they respond that they used steroids on one or more occasions during the last 12 months or during the last 30 days. Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      In 2014, the original baseline was revised from 1.3 to 0.78 percent due to the discovery of a programming error. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-18.2 Reduce steroid use among 10th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      0.79 (2009)
      Target: 
      Not applicable
      Target-Setting Method: 
      This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      Data from 2009 show that 1.3 percent of 10th graders reported use of steroids in the past year. Because of this extremely low percentage, no target seems reasonable. As the rate approaches zero, the decreases observed would become smaller with each percent reduction. Within a short period of time, the rate would reach a value so near zero that further reductions would be too small to be significant.
      Numerator: 

      Number of 10th grade students who report using steroids in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of 10th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Steroids, or anabolic steroids, are sometimes prescribed by doctors to promote healing from certain types of injuries. Some athletes, and others, have used them to try to increase muscle development. On how many occasions (if any) have you taken steroids on your own--that is, without a doctor telling you to take them?

        • ... in your lifetime?
        • ... during the last 12 months?
        • ... during the last 30 days?

        [Mark one circle for each line. Response categories include:]

        1. 0 occasions
        2. 1-2 occasions
        3. 3-5 occasions
        4. 6-9 occasions
        5. 10-19 occasions
        6. 20-39 occasions
        7. 40 or more
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Students are considered to have used steroids if they respond that they used steroids on one or more occasions during the last 12 months or during the last 30 days. Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      In 2014, the original baseline was revised from 1.3 to 0.79 percent due to the discovery of a programming error. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
    • SA-18.3 Reduce steroid use among 12th graders

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      Monitoring the Future Study
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      1.49 (2009)
      Target: 
      Not applicable
      Target-Setting Method: 
      This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      Data from 2009 show that 2.2 percent of 12th graders reported use of steroids in the past year. Because of this extremely low percentage, no target seems reasonable. As the rate approaches zero, the decreases observed would become smaller with each percent reduction. Within a short period of time, the rate would reach a value so near zero that further reductions would be too small to be significant.
      Numerator: 

      Number of 12th grade students who report using steroids in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of 12th grade students

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Retained from HP2010 objective
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the Monitoring the Future Study:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        Steroids, or anabolic steroids, are sometimes prescribed by doctors to promote healing from certain types of injuries. Some athletes, and others, have used them to try to increase muscle development. On how many occasions (if any) have you taken steroids on your own--that is, without a doctor telling you to take them?

        • ... in your lifetime?
        • ... during the last 12 months?
        • ... during the last 30 days?

        [Mark one circle for each line. Response categories include:]

        1. 0 occasions
        2. 1-2 occasions
        3. 3-5 occasions
        4. 6-9 occasions
        5. 10-19 occasions
        6. 20-39 occasions
        7. 40 or more
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        Students are considered to have used steroids if they respond that they used steroids on one or more occasions during the last 12 months or during the last 30 days. Data are based on students in attendance on the day of the survey administration. A description of the Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) has been published by NIDA.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      In 2014, the original baseline was revised from 2.2 to 1.49 percent due to the discovery of a programming error. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2010.
  • SA-19 Reduce the past-year nonmedical use of prescription drugs

    • SA-19.1 Reduce the past-year nonmedical use of pain relievers

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      4.7 (2015)
      Target: 
      Not applicable
      Target-Setting Method: 
      This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      Data from 2008 show that 4.8 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of pain relievers in the past year Because of this extremely low percentage, no target seems reasonable. As the rate approaches zero, the decreases observed would become smaller with each percent reduction. Within a short period of time, the rate would reach a value so near zero that further reductions would be too small to be significant.
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who report nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Not applicable
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription pain reliever that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline value did not change. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was revised from 4.8 to 4.7 percent and since the baseline is still less than 5 percent, a target will not established.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-19.2 Reduce the past-year nonmedical use of tranquilizers

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      2.3 (2015)
      Target: 
      Not applicable
      Target-Setting Method: 
      This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      Data from 2008 show that 2.0 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of tranquilizers in the past year. Because of this extremely low percentage, no target seems reasonable. As the rate approaches zero, the decreases observed would become smaller with each percent reduction. Within a short period of time, the rate would reach a value so near zero that further reductions would be too small to be significant.
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who report nonmedical use of prescription tranquilizers in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Not applicable
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription tranquilizer that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline value did not change. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was revised from 2.0 to 2.3 percent and since the baseline is still less than 5 percent, a target will not established.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-19.3 Reduce the past-year nonmedical use of stimulants

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      1.96 (2015)
      Target: 
      Not applicable
      Target-Setting Method: 
      This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      Data from 2008 show that 1.06 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of stimulants in the past year Because of this extremely low percentage, no target seems reasonable. As the rate approaches zero, the decreases observed would become smaller with each percent reduction. Within a short period of time, the rate would reach a value so near zero that further reductions would be too small to be significant.
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who report nonmedical use of prescription stimulants in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Not applicable
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription stimulants that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 1.1 to 1.06 percent. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was revised from 1.06 to 1.96 percent and since the baseline is still less than 5 percent, a target will not established.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-19.4 Reduce the past-year nonmedical use of sedatives

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      0.56 (2015)
      Target: 
      Not applicable
      Target-Setting Method: 
      This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
      Target-Setting Method Justification: 
      Data from 2008 show that 3.9 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported use of inhalants in the past year. Because of this extremely low percentage, no target seems reasonable. As the rate approaches zero, the decreases observed would become smaller with each percent reduction. Within a short period of time, the rate would reach a value so near zero that further reductions would be too small to be significant.
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who report nonmedical use of prescription sedatives in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Not applicable
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription sedatives that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.
        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-201....

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 0.2 to 0.25 percent. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was revised from 0.25 to 0.56 percent and since the baseline is still less than 5 percent, a target will not established.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
    • SA-19.5 Reduce the past-year nonmedical use of any psychotherapeutic drug (including pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives)

      About the Data

      Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

      Data Source: 
      National Survey on Drug Use and Health
      Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      Yes
      Measure: 
      percent
      Baseline (Year): 
      7.1 (2015)
      Target: 
      6.4
      Target-Setting Method: 
      10 percent improvement
      Numerator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over who report nonmedical use of any prescription psychotherapeutic drugs in the past year

      Denominator: 

      Number of persons aged 12 years and over

      Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
      Not applicable
      Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

        From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

        [NUMERATOR:]

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription pain reliever that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription tranquilizer that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription stimulant that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF

        How long has it been since you last used any prescription sedative that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?

        1. Within the past 30 days
        2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
        3. More than 12 months ago
        4. DK/REF
      Data Collection Frequency: 
      Annual
      Methodology Notes: 

        In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

        The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

        The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.

        http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-2015.pdf.

        A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

      Trend Issues: 
      Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

      Revision History

      Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

      Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
      During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. However, the baseline and target values did not change as a result. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was revised from 6.1 to 7.1 percent. The target was also adjusted from 5.5 to 6.4 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

      References

      Additional resources about the objective

      1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.
  • SA-20 Reduce the number of deaths attributable to alcohol

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    Alcohol Related Disease Impact System
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    No
    Measure: 
    average annual number
    Baseline (Year): 
    79,646 (2001–05)
    Target: 
    71,681
    Target-Setting Method: 
    10 percent improvement
    Numerator: 

    Average annual number of deaths attributable to medium and high average daily alcohol consumption

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Not applicable
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      Estimates of alcohol-related deaths are calculated using pre-determined estimates of Alcohol-Attributable Fractions (AAFs)—that is, the proportion of deaths from various causes that are due to alcohol. These AAFs are then multiplied by the number of deaths caused by a specific condition (e.g., liver cancer) to obtain the number of alcohol-attributable deaths. The cutpoints used to define different levels of average daily alcohol consumption (i.e., low, medium, and high) were specified in the meta-analyses that were used to obtain risk estimates for a given condition. These cutpoints were typically reported as grams of alcohol per day, and then converted into drinks per day, using a 13.7 gram per drink conversion factor. A description of the ARDI software is available on CDCs website.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Alcohol and Public Health: About ARDI - Methods. Home page. August 2010.
    2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost --- United States, 2001.Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep; 53(37): 866-70. 2004.
  • SA-21 Reduce the proportion of adolescents who use inhalants

    About the Data

    Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

    Data Source: 
    National Survey on Drug Use and Health
    Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    Yes
    Measure: 
    percent
    Baseline (Year): 
    2.7 (2015)
    Target: 
    Not applicable
    Target-Setting Method: 
    This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
    Numerator: 

    Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years who reported using inhalants during the past year

    Denominator: 

    Number of persons aged 12 to 17 years

    Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective: 
    Retained from HP2010 objective
    Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data: 

      From the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

      [NUMERATOR:]

      [The following question is asked separately for each inhalant: Amyl nitrite, "poppers,' locker room odorizers, or "rush'; Correction fluid, degreaser, or cleaning fluid; Gasoline or lighter fluid; Glue, shoe polish, or toluene; Halothane, ether, or other paint solvents; Lighter gases, such as butane or propane; Nitrous oxide "whippets'; Spray paints; or Other aerosol sprays]

      Have you ever, even once, used [Amyl nitrite, "poppers,' locker room odorizers, or "rush']?

      1. Yes
      2. No

      How long has it been since you last used [Amyl nitrite, "poppers,' locker room or hashish; odorizers, or "rush"]?

      1. Within the past 30 days -- that is, since [DATE]
      2. More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months
      3. More than 12 months ago
    Data Collection Frequency: 
    Annual
    Methodology Notes: 

      Use of inhalants within the past year was defined by an affirmative response to ever using any kind of inhalant "for kicks or to get high" combined with a response of " Within the past 30 days” and “More than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months.” Specific inhalants that have been identified as used "for kicks or to get high" are listed to help the respondent remember and to let the respondent know the kinds of substances of interest. In addition, probes are added for other substances. These two approaches tend to increase the probability that inhalant users will report their use.

      In 2014 and 2015 changes were made to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) resulting in the need to revise the baselines and targets for 20 HP2020 objectives. In 2014, the changes to NSDUH primarily focused on revising the sample design, such as modifying the distribution of the sample across the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reducing the oversampling of youths and young adults. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members).

      The 2014 changes to the sample design are expected to result in more precise national estimates overall as well as more precise estimates for older adults. The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs.

      The following report outlines all of the changes that were made to the NSDUH in 2014 and 2015.

      http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-RedesignChanges-2015.pdf.

      A description of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) has been published by SAMHSA.

    Trend Issues: 
    Estimates prior to data year 2015 were removed due to a questionnaire redesign of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) beginning in data year 2015, which resulted in a break in trend. Estimates were removed for both national level, and state-level data including the category ‘all reporting states’.

    Revision History

    Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

    Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch: 
    During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the original baseline was revised from 3.9 to 4.0 percent. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade. In 2015, SAMHSA implemented changes to the NSDUH data collection equipment, respondent materials, and survey questionnaire, including revisions to existing measures (e.g., prescription drugs, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and binge alcohol) and the addition of new questions (e.g., sexual orientation and attraction, disability status, and identification of active duty family members). The 2015 changes are expected to improve the quality of data, and the questionnaire revisions will address SAMHSA's substance use and mental health policy and research needs. As a result in 2019, the baseline was revised from 4.0 to 2.7 percent and since the baseline is still less than 5 percent, a target will not established.

    References

    Additional resources about the objective

    1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434. Rockville, MD. 2009.