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Evidence-Based Resources Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
- What do the ratings mean?
- What are the differences between the ratings?
- What criteria were used to identify these resources?
- Can you define the types of resources displayed?
- What are the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs)?
- What are some search tips for using the evidence-based resources tool?
- Why can’t I search the database for some Topic Areas and other categories of information?
- Who developed this evidence-based resource tool?
- Who identified these evidence-based resources?
- Who developed the rating system?
All of the resources in this tool are based on intervention evaluations or studies that have evidence of effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and transferability. The ratings indicate how strong the evidence is.
4 out of 4
These resources are based on rigorous evidence. Resources with this rating include systematic reviews of published intervention evaluations or studies that have evidence of effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and transferability.
- Recommendations of the Community Preventive Services Task Force
- Recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
- Systematic reviews published in peer-reviewed journals
3 out of 4
These resources are based on strong evidence. Resources with this rating include non-systematic reviews of published intervention evaluations or studies that have evidence of effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and transferability.
- Non-systematic reviews published by the Federal Government
- Non-systematic reviews published in peer-reviewed journals
2 out of 4
These resources are based on moderate evidence. Resources with this rating include intervention evaluations or studies with peer review that have evidence of effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and transferability.
- Journal articles of individual studies
- Published intervention research
- Published pilot studies
1 out of 4
These resources are based on weak evidence. Resources with this rating include intervention evaluations or studies without peer review that have evidence of effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and transferability.
- Unpublished intervention research
- Unpublished pilot studies
- Unpublished case studies
- Unpublished field-based summaries
4 vs. 3: A rating of 4 requires a formal, comprehensive, and systematic review of all relevant literature whereas a rating of 3 only requires an informal, non-comprehensive, non-systematic review of some but not all relevant literature.
2 vs. 1: A rating of 2 requires peer review whereas a rating of 1 does not require peer review.
- Is it a formal, comprehensive, systematic review?
- Was it peer reviewed and published?
- Does it include multiple evaluations or studies?
- Statistical significance
- Effect size (e.g., magnitude of effect)
- Meaningfulness of effect
- Additional effect over control
Systematic Review: A systematic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of all research studies that address a particular issue. Researchers use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic using a set of specific criteria. A systematic review typically includes a description of the findings of the collection of research studies. The systematic review may or may not include a quantitative pooling of data, called a meta-analysis.
Healthy People 2020 provides a comprehensive set of 10-year national goals and objectives for improving the health of all Americans. Healthy People 2020 is composed of more than 1,200 objectives across 42 Topic Areas.
The 12 Leading Health Indicator topics are:
- Access to Health Services
- Clinical Preventive Services
- Environmental Quality
- Injury and Violence
- Maternal, Infant, and Child Health
- Mental Health
- Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
- Oral Health
- Reproductive and Sexual Health
- Social Determinants
- Substance Abuse
For more information, visit: Leading Health Indicators
Topic Areas are dimmed in the dropdown menus to indicate that there are no resources available in the database at the time of your search. The same is true for specific search criteria, such as age ranges. We are continually adding evidence-based resources to the database. As resources become available, you will have the opportunity to choose from more Topic Areas, objectives, and search criteria.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion developed this tool with guidance, input, and support from:
- The Healthy People 2020 Federal Interagency Workgroup (FIW)
- The FIW’s Implementation Strategies Subgroup
- The Healthy People 2020 Workgroup Coordinators
- The National Institutes of Health’s Office of Disease Prevention
Subject matter experts at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services who comprise the Healthy People 2020 Workgroup Coordinators for the relevant Healthy People 2020 Topic Area. The list of Healthy People Topic Areas can be found here. The list of Healthy People Workgroup Coordinators can be found here.
- Developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Best Practices Workgroup
- Revised by the Healthy People 2020 Implementation Strategies Subgroup
- Approved by the Healthy People 2020 Federal Interagency Workgroup