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Reproductive and Sexual Health

Reproductive and Sexual Health Across the Life Stages

Reproductive and sexual health is an important part of an individual's overall health, particularly during childbearing years.


  • Babies of mothers who do not get prenatal care are 3 times more likely to have a low birth weight and 5 times more likely to die than those born to mothers who do get prenatal care.7


  • STDs are a risk to adolescents' health and fertility. Nearly half of new STD infections are among young people age 15 to 24.8
  • Adolescents who become pregnant are much less likely to complete their education. About 50% of teen mothers get a high school diploma by age 22, compared with 90% of teen girls who do not give birth.4 Only 50% of teen fathers who have children before age 18 finish high school or get their GED by age 22.9

Older Adults10

People age 50 and over account for decreasing numbers of new HIV diagnoses, and older adults may not consider themselves to be at risk of HIV infection. However, many older adults are sexually active, including those living with HIV, and may have the same HIV risk factors as younger people. Consider the following:

  • People age 50 and over accounted for 17% of the new HIV diagnoses in 2015 in the United States.
  • 45% of Americans living with diagnosed HIV are over age 50.
  • Older women may be especially at risk for HIV infection due to age-related thinning and dryness of vaginal tissue.
  • Some older adults, compared with those who are younger, may be less knowledgeable about HIV and therefore less likely to protect themselves. Many do not perceive themselves as at risk for HIV, do not use condoms, and are less likely than young people to get tested for HIV or to discuss sexual habits or drug use with their doctor.
  • Older people in the United States are more likely than younger people to have late stage HIV infection at the time of diagnosis.

Determinants of Reproductive and Sexual Health

Reproductive and sexual health, particularly the spread of STDs including HIV and the prevalence of unintended pregnancy, are determined in part by social, economic, and behavioral factors. Stigma is still a major barrier to people accessing reproductive and sexual health services. For example, the continued stigma around HIV and its association with men who have sex with men can prevent people from getting tested and knowing their serostatus.

Many other factors affect an individual's reproductive and sexual health decision-making, including access to medical care, social norms, educational attainment, age, income, geographic location, insurance status, sexual orientation, and dependency on alcohol or other drugs. Addressing these determinants is key to reducing health disparities and improving the health of all Americans.


7Office on Women's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Prenatal Care Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: 2009. Available from

8National Prevention Information Network, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STDs Today. Atlanta, GA: 2011. Available from External Web Site Policy

9Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Available from

10Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over. Atlanta, GA: 2017. Available from

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