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Maternal, Infant, and Child Health

Latest Data

Explore the latest data for the LHI topic Maternal, Infant, and Child Health.
 

Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going

From 2003 to 2013, the infant mortality rate decreased by 11.8%, from 6.8 to 6.0 deaths under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births in 2013, meeting the Healthy People 2020 target. In 2013, several groups in selected demographic categories had the lowest rate of infant deaths, including infants born to Asian or Pacific Islander mothers, infants born to mothers aged 30–34 years, and infants weighing 2,500g or more at birth.
 
Between 2004 and 2014, the percent of live births that were delivered preterm (less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) decreased by 9.6%, from 12.5% of live births to 11.3%. The percent of infants born preterm increased by 36.2% from 1981 to 2006, but decreased each year from 2007 to 2014, meeting the Healthy People 2020 target in 2013. 
 
Leading Health Indicators
Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator.
Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)
Preterm births (MICH-9.1)
 

Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-1.3 tracks the rate of infant deaths per 1,000 live births that occur within the first year of life (infant mortality rate).
    • HP2020 Baseline: 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births occurred within the first year of life in 2006.
    • HP2020 Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
    • The infant mortality rate decreased by 10.4% between 2006 and 2013, from 6.7 to 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births.

Rate of Infant Deaths by Birthweight, 2013

Rate of Infant Deaths by Birthweight, 2013

Data source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.

  • Among racial/ethnic groups, infants born to Asian or Pacific Islander mothers had the best (lowest) infant mortality rate, 4.1 per 1,000 live births in 2013.
    • The infant mortality rates experienced by infants of black non-Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, white non-Hispanic, and Hispanic or Latino mothers were 11.1, 7.6, 5.1, and 5.0 per 1,000 live births, respectively.
    • The infant mortality rate for infants of black non-Hispanic mothers was more than 2.5 times the best group rate. 
  • Females had a lower infant mortality rate than males (5.4 versus 6.5 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013).
  • Infants of married mothers experienced a lower infant mortality rate than infants of unmarried mothers (4.6 versus 8.0 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013).
  • Infants of mothers aged 30–34 years experienced the best (lowest) infant mortality rate, 4.9 per 1,000 live births in 2013, among age groups. Rates experienced by infants of mothers in other age groups were:
    • 12.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged less than 15 years; 2.5 times the best group rate
    • 8.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 15–19 years
    • 7.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 20–24 years
    • 5.6 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 25–29 years
    • 5.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 35 years and over
  • In 2013, the infant mortality rate was 219.6 per 1,000 live births for very low birthweight (less than 1,500 grams) infants, compared to 2.0 for infants weighing 2,500g or more at birth, and 13.4 for infants with a birthweight of 1,500–2,499g. The rate for very low birthweight infants was more than 107 times the rate for infants with birthweights of 2,500g or more.
Endnotes:
  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.

Preterm births (MICH-9.1)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-9.1 tracks the percent of infants born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation).
    • HP2020 Baseline: 12.7% of live births were preterm in 2007.
    • HP2020 Target: 11.4% of live births, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
    • Between 2007 and 2014, the total preterm birth rate decreased 11.0%, from 12.7% to 11.3% of live births. 
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the best (lowest) rate of preterm live births delivered in 2014 was experienced by Asian or Pacific Islander mothers (9.8%).
    • Rates for black non-Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, and white non-Hispanic mothers in 2014 were 16.3%, 13.2%, 11.2%, and 10.1%, respectively. 
Rate of Preterm Births by Race/Ethnicity (of Mother), 2014
 
 
MICH Web Graphic
Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS.
 
  • A smaller proportion of females were born preterm than males (10.8% versus 11.8% in 2014).
  • The percent of married mothers delivering preterm live births was better (lower) than that of unmarried mothers (10.0% versus 13.3% in 2014).
  • Mothers aged 25–29 years experienced the best (lowest) percent of preterm births, 10.4% in 2014, among age groups. Rates experienced by mothers in other age groups were:
    • 20.6% of the live births to mothers aged less than 15 years were preterm
    • 13.0% of the live births to mothers aged 15–19 years were preterm
    • 11.3% of the live births to mothers aged 20–24 years were preterm 
    • 10.7% of the live births to mothers aged 30–34 years were preterm
    • 13.4% of the live births to mothers aged 35 years and over were preterm
Endnotes:
  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.
  • Gestational age data in this report are based on the date of the mother’s last normal menses (LMP). NCHS is transitioning to a new standard for estimating the gestational age of the newborn. The new measure, the obstetric estimate of gestation at delivery (OE), is available only from data year 2007 forward. Gestational age estimates differ somewhat between the OE- and LMP-based measures. For example, the 2014 OE-based preterm birth rate is 9.6%, compared with the LMP-based rate of 11.3%. Of note, both measures show declines in the rate of preterm birth from 2007 to 2014. Information and discussion of the reasons for the change, and a detailed comparison of the 2 measures, are presented in the report: Martin JA, Osterman MJK, Kirmeyer SE, Gregory ECW. Measuring gestational age in vital statistics data: Transitioning to the obstetric estimate. National vital statistics reports. 2015;64(5). 
 

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