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Maternal, Infant, and Child Health

Latest Data

Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator.

Download the latest MICH-1.3 and MICH-9.1 data in spreadsheet format.

Where We've Been and Where We're Going

From 2004 to 2014, the infant mortality rate decreased by 14.7%, from 6.8 to 5.8 deaths under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births, exceeding the Healthy People 2020 target. In 2014, several groups in selected demographic categories had the lowest rate of infant deaths, including infants born to Asian or Pacific Islander mothers, infants born to mothers aged 30–34 years, and infants weighing 2,500g or more at birth. Between 2007 and 2015, the percent of live births that were delivered preterm (less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) decreased by 7.7%, from 10.4% of live births to 9.6%.i

Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-1.3 tracks the rate of infant deaths that occur within the first year of life per 1,000 live births (infant mortality rate).
    • HP2020 Baseline: 6.7 infant deaths under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births in 2006.
    • HP2020 Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
    • The infant mortality rate decreased by 13.4% between 2006 and 2014, from 6.7 to 5.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, exceeding the HP2020 target.
  • Among racial/ethnic groups, infants born to Asian or Pacific Islander mothers had the best (lowest) infant mortality rate, 3.9 per 1,000 live births in 2014. Rates for infants of mothers in other racial and ethnic groups were:
    • 10.9 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to black non-Hispanic mothers; more than 2.5 times the best group rate
    • 7.6 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to American Indian or Alaska Native mothers; twice the best group rate
    • 5.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to Hispanic mothers; 30.0% higher than the best group rate
    • 4.9 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to white non-Hispanic mothers; 26.9% higher than the best group rate
  • Females had a lower infant mortality rate than males (5.3 versus 6.3 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2014). The infant mortality rate for males was 19.2% higher than that for females.
  • Infants of married mothers experienced a lower infant mortality rate than infants of unmarried mothers (4.5 versus 7.8 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2014). The infant mortality rate for infants of unmarried mothers was 75.1% higher than that for infants of married mothers.
  • Infants of mothers aged 30–34 years experienced the best (lowest) infant mortality rate, 4.8 per 1,000 live births in 2014, among age groups. Rates experienced by infants of mothers in other age groups were:
    • 16.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers under 15 years of age; 3.5 times the best group rate
    • 8.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 15–19 years; 75.5% higher than the best group rate
    • 6.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 20–24 years; 40.9% higher than the best group rate
    • 5.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 25–29 years; 13.6% higher than the best group rate
    • 5.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 35 years and over; 18.0% higher than the best group rate
  • In 2014, the infant mortality rate was 217.1 per 1,000 live births for very low birthweight (less than 1,500 grams) infants, compared to 12.8 for infants with a birthweight of 1,500–2,499g, and 2.0 for infants weighing 2,500g or more at birth. The rate for very low birthweight infants was 108.5 times the rate for infants with birthweights of 2,500g or more. The rate for infants with a birthweight of 1,500–2,499g was more than 6 times the rate for infants with a birthweight of 2,500g or more.

Rate of Infant Deaths by Birthweight, 2014

Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)

Data source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.

Endnotes:
  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.

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Preterm Births (MICH-9.1)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-9.1 tracks the percent of infants born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation).
    • HP2020 Baselinei: 10.4% of live births were preterm in 2007.
    • HP2020 Targeti: 9.4% of live births, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
    • Between 2007 and 2015, the total preterm birth rate decreased 7.7%, from 10.4% to 9.6% of live births.
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the best (lowest) rate of preterm live births delivered in 2015 was experienced by Asian or Pacific Islander mothers (8.6%). Rates experienced by mothers in other racial and ethnic groups were:
    • 13.4% of the live births to black non-Hispanic mothers were preterm; 55.3% higher than the best group rate
    • 10.5% of the live births to American Indian or Alaska Native mothers were preterm; 22.1% higher than the best group rate
    • 9.1% of the live births to Hispanic mothers were preterm
    • 8.9% of the live births to white non-Hispanic mothers were preterm

Rate of Preterm Births by Race/Ethnicity (of Mother), 2015

Rate of Preterm Births by Race/Ethnicity

Data source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS.

  • A smaller proportion of females were born preterm than males (9.2% versus 10.0% in 2015).
  • The percent of live births to married mothers that were preterm was better (lower) than that for unmarried mothers (8.8% versus 10.9% in 2015). The rate for unmarried mothers was 23.5% higher than that for married mothers.
  • Mothers aged 25–29 years experienced the best (lowest) percent of preterm births, 8.9% in 2015, among age groups. Rates experienced by mothers in other age groups were:
    • 13.8% of the live births to mothers under 15 years of age were preterm; 54.4% higher than the best group rate
    • 9.9% of the live births to mothers aged 15–19 years were preterm; 11.0% higher than the best group rate
    • 9.3% of the live births to mothers aged 20–24 years were preterm
    • 9.4% of the live births to mothers aged 30–34 years were preterm
    • 11.7% of the live births to mothers aged 35 years and over were preterm; 31.0% higher than the best group rate
Endnotes:
  • i The baseline and target for this objective were revised. Gestational age data in this report are based on a new standard for estimating the gestational age of the newborn. The new measure, obstetric estimate of gestation at delivery (OE), is available from data year 2007 forward. Gestational age estimates differ somewhat between OE and the former method based on the date of the mother’s last normal menses (LMP). For example, the 2015 OE-based preterm birth rate is 9.6%, compared with the LMP-based rate of 11.3%. Of note, both measures show declines in the rate of preterm birth from 2007 to 2015. Information and discussion of the reasons for the change, and a detailed comparison of the 2 measures, are presented in the report: Martin JA, Osterman MJK, Kirmeyer SE, Gregory ECW. Measuring gestational age in vital statistics data: Transitioning to the obstetric estimate. National vital statistics reports. 2015;64(5).
  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.

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