Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going
Leading Health Indicators
Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator
Air Quality Index (AQI) exceeding 100 (EH-1)
Children aged 3 to 11 years exposed to secondhand smoke (TU-11.1)
The Air Quality Index (AQI), which reports daily air quality from a value of 0 to 500, considers values greater than 100 to indicate unhealthy levels of air pollution. Between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, the number of AQI-weighted people days decreased 44%, from 2.237 billion to 1.252 billion, exceeding the HP2020 target. (This trend cannot be tested for statistical significance.)
- Data for this objective are available annually and come from the Air Quality System (AQS), EPA.
- Populations living in areas with unhealthy air are weighted (multiplied) by the number of AQI days, and the severity of AQI days.
Healthy People 2020 objective TU-11.1 tracks the proportion of children aged 3–11 years who were exposed to secondhand smoke.
- HP2020 Baseline: In 2005–2008, 52.2% of children aged 3–11 years were exposed to secondhand smoke.
- HP2020 Target: 47.0%, a 10% improvement over the baseline.
- Between 2005–08 and 2009–12, exposure to secondhand smoke among children aged 3¬–11 years decreased 20.9%, from 52.2% to 41.3%, exceeding the HP2020 target.
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.
Among racial and ethnic groups, Hispanic children aged 3–11 years had the lowest rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in 2009–2012 (31.4%). The rate for non-Hispanic black children (67.9%) was more than twice the best group rate.
In 2009–2012, children born outside the U.S. were less likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke than children born in the U.S. (16.3% vs. 42.4%). The rate for children born in the U.S. was more than 2.5 times the rate for children born outside the U.S.
Among health insurance status groups, children aged 3–11 years with private health insurance had the lowest rate of secondhand smoke exposure (27.3%) in 2009–12. Children with public health insurance (57.5%) had more than twice the rate of secondhand smoke exposure, and children with no health insurance (43.8%) had more than 1.5 times the rate of secondhand smoke exposure.
Among family income groups, children aged 3–11 years in families with income 500% or more of the poverty threshold had the lowest rate of secondhand smoke exposure (14.1%) in 2009–12. Compared to the best group rate:
Children in families with incomes below the poverty threshold had nearly 4.5 times the rate of secondhand smoke exposure.
Children in families with incomes at 100–199% of the poverty threshold had nearly 3.5 times the rate of secondhand smoke exposure.
Children in families with incomes at 200–399% of the poverty threshold had about 2.5 times the rate of secondhand smoke exposure.
The rates for children in families with incomes at 400–499% of the poverty threshold were not statistically reliable for 2009–12.
- Unless noted otherwise, all disparities described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
- Data are for the proportion of non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Persons of all age groups shown are considered to be exposed to secondhand smoke if they have a serum cotinine level of greater than or equal to 0.05 ng/ml and less than or equal to 10 ng/ml. Children aged 3–11 years (TU-11.1) are considered to be non-smokers if they have a serum cotinine level less than or equal to 10ng/ml. Adolescents and adults aged 12 years and over (TU-11.2 and TU-11.3) are considered to be non-smokers if they reported that they did not use any product containing nicotine in the past 5 days and if their serum cotinine level is less than or equal to 10 ng/ml.
Unadjusted rates are used to make comparisons for second-hand smoke exposure by age in this report. The data used to monitor TU-11.3 on www.healthypeople.gov are age adjusted. The age adjusted rate of second hand smoke exposure for adults aged 18 years and over in 2009-12 was 25.5%, while the unadjusted rate was 24.8%. Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using the age groups 18–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80 years and over. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates.
The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.
Data for this measure are available biennially and come from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS. For this data system, 4 years of data are pooled for analysis when available.