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State Public Health Laboratories Performing Antiviral Resistance Testing


The only current treatments available for people suffering from influenza infection are antivirals. Every season, influenza viruses evolve to evade the collective immune system of a population. Because of this, it is possible that newly emergent and seasonal strains will become resistant to these medications. The purpose of this surveillance is to monitor for these mutations and to alert public-health officials if and when these antiviral-resistant strains become a widely circulating strain.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
Data Years Available: 
Mode of Collection: 
Information is collected from all possible events and/or entities under reivew.
Selected Content: 
Data collected includes the follow-up and treatment for contacts to acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear positive; sputum smear negative/culture positive; and other (i.e. associate cases or cases for) TB cases. This includes: the proportion of contacts elicited, contacts evaluated, and contacts initiated treatment, completed treatment and reasons for not completing treatment. Program data such as reporting area, cohort year, date report updated, and total number of TB cases is also collected.
Population Covered: 
Contacts to acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear positive; sputum smear negative/culture positive; and other (i.e. associate-contact or source-case investigations) TB cases within the United States.

The ARPE report is an annual summary of the core activities of eliciting and evaluating contacts to TB cases and treating the contacts that have latent TB infection (LTBI). The designated individual at the TB control jurisdiction for APRE reporting collects the data throughout the year and reports an aggregate of these data annually to the CDC.

The data are accumulated into a cohort over 1 calendar year (i.e. January 31, 2009-December 31, 2009). The contacts are assigned to the same count-year as the TB cases being investigated (i.e. January 31, 2009-December 31, 2009). A preliminary report should be tabulated by August 15 following the cohort year (i.e., before all the completion-of-therapy data are available; 2010) and, The final results, including the completion-of-therapy data, are due in aggregate form via the ARPE form at CDC by August 15, 1 year later (i.e. 2011).

Response Rates and Sample Size: 

Annual reporting of these data from the federally funded TB control jurisdictions to CDC may vary; for example, in 2009, of the 60 TB control jurisdictions collecting contact investigation data, 55 submitted ARPE reports to the CDC. The response rate for the TB control jurisdictions was 91.6%.

Interpretation Issues: