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California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment


California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA) is an annual survey of California women who recently gave birth to a live infant. It collects population-based data on maternal attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. The survey is based on the national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), operated by the CDC. The goal of MIHA is to improve the health of mothers and infants by reducing adverse outcomes such as low birth weight, infant mortality and morbidity, and maternal morbidity. MIHA combines data from birth certificates with survey data obtained from a sample of women who have had a recent birth.

California Department of Public Health
Data Years Available: 
Mode of Collection: 
Mail survey.
Selected Content: 
MIHA data include basic demographic information, barriers to and content of prenatal care, obstetric history, maternal use of alcohol and cigarettes, maternal stress, and early infant development and health status.
Population Covered: 
A representative sample of births occurring in California.

The MIHA sample of women who have had a recent live birth is drawn from the state's birth certificate file. The sample is stratified by race, education and region within California. African-American women are oversampled. The MIHA is administered in English and Spanish. Women are asked to complete a mail questionnaire, with telephone follow-up to non-respondents. Data are weighted to account for stratification, oversampling, and nonresponse.

Response Rates and Sample Size: 

In 2006, 3,178 women participated in the survey. For each year, response rates to MIHA were between 70% and 72% (for 1999-2001 data years).

Interpretation Issues: 

MIHA Snapshots and related web pages.