Skip Navigation

Substance Abuse

Policy and Prevention

Baseline: 28.3 percent of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they rode, during the previous 30 days, with a driver who had been drinking alcohol in 2009
Target: 25.5 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), CDC/NCHHSTP
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-06.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-2 Increase the proportion of adolescents never using substances
Baseline: 85.6 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who had never used alcohol in their lives refrained from using alcohol for the first time in 2008
Target: 94.2 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-09a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 94.3 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who had never used marijuana in their lives refrained from using marijuana for the first time in 2008
Target: 96.3 percent
Target-Setting Method: 2 percentage point improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-09b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 27.7 percent of high school seniors reported never using alcoholic beverages in 2009
Target: 30.5 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-09c.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 53.3 percent of high school seniors reported never using illicit drugs in 2009
Target: 58.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-09d.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-3 Increase the proportion of adolescents who disapprove of substance abuse
Baseline: 78.5 percent of 8th graders reported that they disapproved of people having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day in 2009
Target: 86.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-16a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 77.6 percent of 10th graders reported that they disapproved of people having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day in 2009
Target: 85.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-16b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 70.5 percent of 12th graders reported that they disapproved of people having one or two alcoholic drinks nearly every day in 2009
Target: 77.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-16c.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 75.3 percent of 8th graders reported that they disapproved of people trying marijuana or hashish once or twice in 2009
Target: 82.8 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-16d.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 60.1 percent of 10th graders reported that they disapproved of people trying marijuana or hashish once or twice in 2009
Target: 66.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-16e.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 54.8 percent of 12th graders reported that they disapproved of people trying marijuana or hashish once or twice in 2009
Target: 60.3 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-16f.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-4 Increase the proportion of adolescents who perceive great risk associated with substance abuse
Baseline: 40.0 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported that they perceived great risk associated with consuming five or more alcoholic drinks at a single occasion once or twice a week in 2008
Target: 44.0 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-17a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 33.4 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported that they perceived great risk associated with smoking marijuana once per month in 2008
Target: 36.7 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-17b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 49.4 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported that they perceived great risk associated with using cocaine once per month in 2008
Target: 54.3 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-17c.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 13 States had mandatory ignition interlock laws for first and repeat impaired driving offenders in 2009
Target: 51 (50 States and the District of Columbia)
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: Status of State Ignition Interlock Laws, Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details

Screening and Treatment

Baseline: 255,374 admissions to Level I and Level II trauma centers to substance abuse treatment programs for injection drug use were reported in 2006
Target: 280,911 admissions to Level I and Level II trauma centers
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-20.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-8 Increase the proportion of persons who need alcohol and/or illicit drug treatment and received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year
Baseline: 16.0 percent of persons aged 12 years and older who needed illicit drug treatment reported that they received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year in 2008
Target: 17.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-18a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 9.9 percent of persons aged 12 years and older who needed alcohol treatment and/or illicit drug treatment reported that they received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year in 2008
Target: 10.9 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-18b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 8.2 percent of persons aged 12 years and older who needed alcohol treatment reported that they received specialty treatment for abuse or dependence in the past year in 2008
Target: 9.0 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-21.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 325 Level I and Level II trauma centers met the criteria for implementing evidence-based alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in 2009
Target: 358 Level I and Level II trauma centers
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Trauma Registry System (TRACS), American College of Surgeons (ACS)
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details

Epidemiology and Surveillance

SA-11 Reduce cirrhosis deaths Revised

This objective was revised.
See Revision History for Details.

Baseline: 9.1 cirrhosis deaths per 100,000 population occurred in 2007 (age adjusted to the year 2000 standard population)
Target: 8.2 deaths per 100,000 population
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; Population Estimates, Census
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-02.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: History is not available
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 12.6 drug-induced deaths per 100,000 population occurred in 2007 (age adjusted to the year 2000 standard population)
Target: 11.3 deaths per 100,000 population
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; Population Estimates, Census
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-03.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-13 Reduce past-month use of illicit substances
SA-13.1 Reduce the proportion of adolescents reporting use of alcohol or any illicit drugs during the past 30 days Leading Health Indicators

Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

Revised

This objective was revised.
See Revision History for Details.

Baseline: 18.4 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported use of alcohol or any illicit drugs during the past 30 days in 2008
Target: 16.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-10a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Related Leading Health Indicator (LHI) information
Close Details
Baseline: 6.7 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported use of marijuana during the past 30 days in 2008
Target: 6.0 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-10b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 7.9 percent of adults aged 18 years and older reported use of any illicit drug during the past 30 days in 2008
Target: 7.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-10c.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-14 Reduce the proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking of alcoholic beverages
Baseline: 25.2 percent of high school seniors reported that they engaged in binge drinking during the past 2 weeks in 2009
Target: 22.7 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-11a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 41.1 percent of college students reported that they engaged in binge drinking during the past 2 weeks in 2008 2007 college students reported that they engaged in binge drinking during the past 2 weeks in 2008
Target: 37.0 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-11b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-14.3 Reduce the proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking during the past 30 days—adults aged 18 years and older Leading Health Indicators

Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

Revised

This objective was revised.
See Revision History for Details.

Baseline: 27.1 percent of adults aged 18 years and older reported that they engaged in binge drinking during the past 30 days in 2008
Target: 24.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-11c.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Related Leading Health Indicator (LHI) information
Close Details
Baseline: 9.5 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported that they engaged in binge drinking during the past month in 2008
Target: 8.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-11d.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 28.2 percent of adults aged 18 years and older reported that they drank excessively in the previous 30 days in 2008
Target: 25.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objectives with the same definition were 26-13a and 26-13b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 2.3 gallons of ethanol per person aged 14 years and older were consumed in 2007
Target: 2.1 gallons per person
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System (AEDS); Population Estimates, Census
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-12.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 0.40 deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled involved a driver or motorcycle rider with a BAC of .08 or greater in 2008
Target: 0.38 deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), DOT/NHTSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-01a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-18 Reduce steroid use among adolescents
SA-18.1 Reduce steroid use among 8th graders Revised

This objective was revised.
See Revision History for Details.

Baseline: 0.78 percent of 8th graders reported that they used steroids in the past year in 2009
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-14a.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-18.2 Reduce steroid use among 10th graders Revised

This objective was revised.
See Revision History for Details.

Baseline: 0.79 percent of 10th graders reported that they used steroids in the past year in 2009
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-14b.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-18.3 Reduce steroid use among 12th graders Revised

This objective was revised.
See Revision History for Details.

Baseline: 1.49 percent of 12th graders reported that they used steroids in the past year in 2009
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: Monitoring the Future Study (MTF), NIH/NIDA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-14c.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
SA-19 Reduce the past-year nonmedical use of prescription drugs
Baseline: 4.8 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of pain relievers in the past year in 2008
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 2.0 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of tranquilizers in the past year in 2008
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 1.06 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of stimulants in the past year in 2008
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 0.25 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of sedatives in the past year in 2008
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 6.1 percent of persons aged 12 years and older reported nonmedical use of any psychotherapeutic drug in 2008
Target: 5.5 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 79,646 deaths attributable to the harmful effects of excessive alcohol use occurred in 2001–05 (average annual number)
Target: 71,681 deaths
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Alcohol Related Disease Impact System (ARDI), CDC
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details
Baseline: 4.0 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years reported that they used inhalants in the past year in 2008
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
Data Details Details about the methodology and measurement of this HP2020 objective
Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 26-15.
Search data for all HP2010 objectives
Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
More Information:
Related research articles on PubMed
Close Details

Back to Top