FS-3.2 Prevent an increase in the proportion of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from humans that are resistant to ceftriaxone (third-generation cephalosporin)

National Data Source
National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (CDC/NCEZID)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Baseline (Year)
3.0 (2006-2008)
Target-Setting Method
Maintain the baseline value.

Number of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates that are resistant to ceftriaxone

Number of non- typhoidal Salmonella isolates tested for resistance to ceftriaxone
Data Collection Frequency
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective


Methodology Notes

The primary objectives of NARMS are to:

  1. Monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance among foodborne bacteria from humans, retail meats, and animals
  2. Disseminate timely information on antimicrobial resistance to promote interventions that reduce resistance among foodborne bacteria
  3. Conduct research to better understand the emergence, persistence, and spread of antimicrobial resistance
  4. Assist the FDA in making decisions related to the approval of safe and effective antimicrobial drugs for animals

In 1996, surveillance for Salmonella in NARMS began in 14 sites. Since 2003, all 50 states have been participating, which represent a population of approximately 308 million (US census, 2010). Participating sites forward every Salmonella Typhi isolate, every twentieth non-typhoidal Salmonella, every twentieth Shigella isolate, and every twentieth E. coli O157 isolate received at their public health laboratories to NARMS at CDC for susceptibility testing.

Susceptibility testing involves determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 15 antimicrobial agents: amikacin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is used for this objective. Non-typhoidal Salmonella excludes the following Salmonella serotypes: Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B (i.e., tartrate negative isolates), and Paratyphi C. Tartrate positive Salmonella serotype Paratyphi B isolates are referred to as Salmonella serotype Paratyphi B var. L(+) tartrate+ and are not typically associated with typhoidal disease.

The FoodNet sites (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, New Mexico, Oregon and Tennessee) also send one Campylobacter isolate each week to CDC. Susceptibility testing of Campylobacter is performed to determine the MICs for eight antimicrobial agents: azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline.

References and More Information

  1. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria