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Occupational Safety and Health Data Details

OSH-1 Reduce deaths from work-related injuries

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
4.0 (2007)
Target
3.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator

Number of work-related injury deaths among full-time equivalent workers aged 16 years and older

Denominator
Average annual hours at work for workers aged 16 years and older
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

CFOI uses multiple data sources, including death certificates, workers' compensation reports, reports to various regulatory agencies, police reports, medical examiner records, and newspaper reports, to identify and verify work-related fatalities.

Beginning with data for 2008, CFOI applied a new rate methodology, changing the denominator from employment-based to hours-based. CFOI uses hours worked data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly household survey that collects data on the employment status of the civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 16 years and older. For the baseline year (2007), BLS produced both employment- and hours-based rates; the baseline estimate is for hours-based employment.

Hours-based rates are based on the average number of employees at work and the average hours each employee works. Hours-based rates measure fatal injury risk per standardized length of exposure, and are generally considered more accurate than employment-based rates. Employment and hours-based rates will be similar for groups of workers who tend to work full-time. However, differences will be observed for worker groups who tend to have a high percentage of part-time workers, such as younger workers.

Rates are expressed for full-time equivalent workers. Full-time equivalent employees equal the number of employees on full-time schedules plus the number of employees on part-time schedules converted to a full-time basis. The number of full-time equivalent employees in each industry is the product of the total number of employees and the ratio of average weekly hours per employee for all employees. An industry’s full-time equivalent employment will be less than the number of its employees on full- and part-time schedules, unless the industry has no part-time employees.

For consistency with the CPS data, workers under the age of 16, volunteers, and military personnel are excluded from the CFOI counts used to calculate rates. Information on the type of industry is converted to North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) - Current and Revised Data. Washington, DC: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcfoi1.htm
  2. Thomsen C.; McClain J,; Rosenman K,; Davis L.; Indicators for Occupational Health Surveillance. MMWR 56(RR-1). 2007.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
21.4 (2007)
Target
19.3
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of work-related injury deaths among full-time equivalent workers aged 16 years and older in the mining industry (North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007 code 21)
Denominator
Average annual hours at work for workers aged 16 years and older in the mining industry (NAICS 2007 code 21)
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

CFOI uses multiple data sources, including death certificates, workers' compensation reports, reports to various regulatory agencies, police reports, medical examiner records, and newspaper reports, to identify and verify work-related fatalities.

Beginning with data for 2008, CFOI applied a new rate methodology, changing the denominator from employment-based to hours-based. CFOI uses hours worked data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly household survey that collects data on the employment status of the civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 16 years and older. For the baseline year (2007), BLS produced both employment- and hours-based rates; the baseline estimate is for hours-based employment.

Hours-based rates are based on the average number of employees at work and the average hours each employee works. Hours-based rates measure fatal injury risk per standardized length of exposure, and are generally considered more accurate than employment-based rates. Employment and hours-based rates will be similar for groups of workers who tend to work full-time. However, differences will be observed for worker groups who tend to have a high percentage of part-time workers, such as younger workers.

Rates are expressed for full-time equivalent workers. Full-time equivalent employees equal the number of employees on full-time schedules plus the number of employees on part-time schedules converted to a full-time basis. The number of full-time equivalent employees in each industry is the product of the total number of employees and the ratio of average weekly hours per employee for all employees. An industry’s full-time equivalent employment will be less than the number of its employees on full- and part-time schedules, unless it has no part-time employees.

For consistency with the CPS data, workers under the age of 16, volunteers, and military personnel are excluded from the CFOI counts used to calculate rates. Information on the type of industry is converted to North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
10.8 (2007)
Target
9.7
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of work-related injury deaths among full-time equivalent workers aged 16 years and older in the construction industry (North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2002 code 23)
Denominator
Average annual hours at work for workers aged 16 years and older in the construction industry (NAICS 2002 code 23)
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

CFOI uses multiple data sources, including death certificates, workers' compensation reports, reports to various regulatory agencies, police reports, medical examiner records, and newspaper reports, to identify and verify work-related fatalities.

Beginning with data for 2008, CFOI applied a new rate methodology, changing the denominator from employment-based to hours-based. CFOI uses hours worked data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly household survey that collects data on the employment status of the civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 16 years and older. For the baseline year (2007), BLS produced both employment- and hours-based rates; the baseline estimate is for hours-based employment.

Hours-based rates are based on the average number of employees at work and the average hours each employee works. Hours-based rates measure fatal injury risk per standardized length of exposure, and are generally considered more accurate than employment-based rates. Employment and hours-based rates will be similar for groups of workers who tend to work full-time. However, differences will be observed for worker groups who tend to have a high percentage of part-time workers, such as younger workers.

Rates are expressed for full-time equivalent workers. Full-time equivalent employees equal the number of employees on full-time schedules plus the number of employees on part-time schedules converted to a full-time basis. The number of full-time equivalent employees in each industry is the product of the total number of employees and the ratio of average weekly hours per employee for all employees. An industry’s full-time equivalent employment will be less than the number of its employees on full- and part-time schedules, unless the industry has no part-time employees.

For consistency with the CPS data, workers under the age of 16, volunteers, and military personnel are excluded from the CFOI counts used to calculate rates. Information on the type of industry is converted to North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
16.5 (2007)
Target
14.8
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of work-related injury deaths among full-time equivalent workers aged 16 years and older in the transportation and warehousing industry (North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007 codes 48-49)
Denominator
Average annual hours at work for workers aged 16 years and older in the transportation and warehousing industry (NAICS 2007 codes 48-49)
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

CFOI uses multiple data sources, including death certificates, workers' compensation reports, reports to various regulatory agencies, police reports, medical examiner records, and newspaper reports, to identify and verify work-related fatalities.

Beginning with data for 2008, CFOI applied a new rate methodology, changing the denominator from employment-based to hours-based. CFOI uses hours worked data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly household survey that collects data on the employment status of the civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 16 years and older. For the baseline year (2007), BLS produced both employment- and hours-based rates; the baseline estimate is for hours-based employment.

Hours-based rates are based on the average number of employees at work and the average hours each employee works. Hours-based rates measure fatal injury risk per standardized length of exposure, and are generally considered more accurate than employment-based rates. Employment and hours-based rates will be similar for groups of workers who tend to work full-time. However, differences will be observed for worker groups who tend to have a high percentage of part-time workers, such as younger workers.

Rates are expressed for full-time equivalent workers. Full-time equivalent employees equal the number of employees on full-time schedules plus the number of employees on part-time schedules converted to a full-time basis. The number of full-time equivalent employees in each industry is the product of the total number of employees and the ratio of average weekly hours per employee for all employees. An industry’s full-time equivalent employment will be less than the number of its employees on full- and part-time schedules, unless the industry has no part-time employees.

For consistency with the CPS data, workers under the age of 16, volunteers, and military personnel are excluded from the CFOI counts used to calculate rates. Information on the type of industry is converted to North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
27.0 (2007)
Target
24.3
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of work-related injury deaths among full-time equivalent workers aged 16 years and older in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting industry (North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2007 code 11)
Denominator
Average annual hours at work for workers aged 16 years and older in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting industry (NAICS 2007 code 11)
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

CFOI uses multiple data sources, including death certificates, workers' compensation reports, reports to various regulatory agencies, police reports, medical examiner records, and newspaper reports, to identify and verify work-related fatalities.

Beginning with data for 2008, CFOI applied a new rate methodology, changing the denominator from employment-based to hours-based. CFOI uses hours worked data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly household survey that collects data on the employment status of the civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 16 years and older. For the baseline year (2007), BLS produced both employment- and hours-based rates; the baseline estimate is for hours-based employment.

Hours-based rates are based on the average number of employees at work and the average hours each employee works. Hours-based rates measure fatal injury risk per standardized length of exposure, and are generally considered more accurate than employment-based rates. Employment and hours-based rates will be similar for groups of workers who tend to work full-time. However, differences will be observed for worker groups who tend to have a high percentage of part-time workers, such as younger workers.

Rates are expressed for full-time equivalent workers. Full-time equivalent employees equal the number of employees on full-time schedules plus the number of employees on part-time schedules converted to a full-time basis. The number of full-time equivalent employees in each industry is the product of the total number of employees and the ratio of average weekly hours per employee for all employees. An industry’s full-time equivalent employment will be less than the number of its employees on full- and part-time schedules, unless the industry has no part-time employees.

For consistency with the CPS data, workers under the age of 16, volunteers, and military personnel are excluded from the CFOI counts used to calculate rates. Information on the type of industry is converted to North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

OSH-2 Reduce nonfatal work-related injuries

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100 
Baseline (Year)
4.2 (2007)
Target
3.8
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of reported work-related nonfatal injuries
Denominator
Total number of hours worked by workers
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2007 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses,:

[NUMERATOR:]


Tell us about the Case

Go to your completed OSHA Form 300. Copy the case information from that form into the spaces below.

Employee’s name________

Job title ________

Date of injury or onset of illness ___/___/___

Number of days away from work_____

Number of days of job transfer or restriction_____


Tell us about the Employee

Check the category which best describes the employee's regular type of job or work: (optional)

  1. Office, professional, business, or management staff
  2. Sales
  3. Product assembly, manufacture
  4. Repair, installation or service of machines, equipment
  5. Construction
  6. Other (specify)
  7. Healthcare
  8. Delivery or driving
  9. Food service
  10. Cleaning, maintenance of building, grounds
  11. Material handling (e.g. stocking, loading/unloading, moving, etc.)
  12. Farming

Employee’s race or ethnic background: (optional-check one or more)

  1. American Indian or Alaska Native
  2. Asian
  3. Black or African American
  4. Hispanic or Latino
  5. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  6. White
  7. Not available

NOTE: You may either answer questions (3) to (13) or attach a copy of a supplementary document that answers them.

Employee’s age: ___OR date of birth: Month___Day___Year___

Employee’s date hired: Month___Day___Year___

OR check length of service at establishment when incident occurred:

  1. Less than 3 months
  2. From 3 to 11 months
  3. From 1 to 5 years
  4. Someone in household died from food allergy (Go to M1died, then skip to Section P)
  5. More than 5 years

Employee’s gender:

  1. Male
  2. Female

Tell us about the incident

Answer the questions below or attach a copy of a supplementary document that answers them.

Was employee treated in an emergency room?

  1. yes
  2. no

Was employee hospitalized overnight as an in-patient?

  1. yes
  2. no

Time employee began work_____

  1. am
  2. pm

Time of event_____

  1. am
  2. pm OR
  3. Check if time cannot be determined

What was the employee doing just before the incident occurred? Describe the activity as well as the tools, equipment, or material the employee was using. Be specific. Examples: “climbing a ladder while carrying roofing materials”; “spraying chlorine from hand sprayer”; “daily computer key-entry.”

What happened? Tell us how the injury or illness occurred. Examples: “When ladder slipped on wet floor, worker fell 20 feet”; “Worker was sprayed with chlorine when gasket broke during replacement”; “Worker developed soreness in wrist over time.”

What was the injury or illness? Tell us the part of the body that was affected and how it was affected; be more specific than “hurt,” “pain,” or “sore.” Examples: “strained back”; “chemical burn, hand”; “carpal tunnel syndrome.”

What object or substance directly harmed the employee? Examples: “concrete floor”; “chlorine”; “radial arm saw.” If this question does not apply to the incident, leave it blank.

Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Nonfatal occupational injuries are defined as any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, amputation etc., which results from a work-related event or from a single instantaneous exposure in the work environment.

The SOII collects data on injuries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defines as recordable. SOII is a cooperative Federal–State program in which employer reports of occupational injuries and illnesses based on OSHA recordkeeping rules are collected from a nationally representative sample of private industry establishments. This includes work-related injuries involving loss of consciousness, days away from work, restricted work activity or job transfer, or medical treatment other than first aid. For this objective nonfatal occupational injuries include those to workers, regardless of age, that involve days away from work as well as those without lost workdays.

For the first time in 2008, the SOII provided national public sector estimates covering nearly 19 million state and local government workers. The survey excludes the self-employed, farms with fewer than 11 employees, private household workers, and employees in Federal government agencies.

The rate per 100 full-time equivalent workers is computed by (1) dividing the number of occupational injuries reported by the total number of hours worked by all employees during the calendar year, and (2) multiplying the result by 200,000. The factor 200,000 represents the hours worked in a year by 100 full-time equivalent workers (working 40 hours work per week, 50 weeks a year).

Nonfatal work-related injuries continue to take a toll on the U.S. workforce with an estimated 4.6 million injuries resulting in medical treatment, lost time from work, or restricted work activity reported by employers in 2008, and an estimated 3.4 million occupational injuries and illnesses treated in emergency departments in 2007. While the data from employer-reports have suggested considerable reductions in work-related injury incidence rates over time, the data from emergency departments have suggested stable rates in recent years. Work-related injuries are preventable.

Caveats and Limitations
Recent reports, including a 2009 GAO report, have questioned the completeness and accuracy of the employer reports included in SOII.  BLS is conducting research to address the potential undercount in SOII, and NIOSH has recently begun research to increase understanding of barriers and incentives for workers to report injuries. Additionally, in October 2009, OSHA began a program to emphasize recordkeeping, including having OSHA inspectors review the occupational injury and illness records prepared by businesses. 

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Workplace Injuries and Illnesses 2008. Washington, DC: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, USDL 09-1302, October 2009.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [in press]. Workers’ Memorial Day --- April 28, 2010. MMWR 59(16), April 30, 2010.
  3. DOL. News Release. U.S. Labor Department's OSHA begins National Emphasis Program on recordkeeping to determine accuracy of worker injury and illness data. Washington, DC: Department of Labor, OSHA, October 1, 2009, O0-775-NAT. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=16488
  4. Estes CR, Jackson LL, Castillo DN. Occupational Injuries and Deaths among Younger Workers. MMWR 59(15). April 23, 2007
  5. Government Accountability Office. Workplace safety and health: Enhancing OSHA's records audit process could improve the accuracy of worker injury and illness data. October 2009, GA)-10-10. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdfO-OSHA-200910.pdf" title="http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdf" target="_blank">http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdfO-OSHA-200910.pdf
  6. Ruser J. Examining evidence on whether BLS undercounts workplace injuries and illnesses. Monthly Labor Review, August 2008:20-32.http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/08/art2full.pdf.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Work Supplement (NEISS-WORK); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Consumer Prodcut Safety Commission (CDC/NIOSH and CPSC)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100 
Baseline (Year)
2.4 (2007)
Target
2.2
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of emergency department treated injuries and illnesses among workers aged 15 to 19 years
Denominator

Average annual hours at work for workers

Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Workers 15 to 19 years have high rates of nonfatal work injuries. Work in job types with many injury hazards and lack of job knowledge, training and skills may contribute to this increased risk.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Estes CR, Jackson LL, Castillo DN. Occupational Injuries and Deaths among Younger Workers. MMWR 59(15). April 23, 2007

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Work Supplement (NEISS-WORK); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Consumer Prodcut Safety Commission (CDC/NIOSH and CPSC)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100 
Baseline (Year)
5.5 (2007)
Target
4.9
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of emergency department treated injuries and illnesses among workers aged 15 to 19 years
Denominator
Average annual hours at work for workers aged 15 to 19 years
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Workers 15 to 19 years have high rates of nonfatal work injuries. Work in job types with many injury hazards and lack of job knowledge, training and skills may contribute to this increased risk.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Estes CR, Jackson LL, Castillo DN. Occupational Injuries and Deaths among Younger Workers. MMWR 59(15). April 23, 2007

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 10,000 
Baseline (Year)
29.6 (2008)
Target
26.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of reported work-related nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses due to overexertion or repetitive motion involving days away from work among workers
Denominator
Total number of hours worked by workers
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Musculoskeletal disorders have been defined to include overexertion and repetitive motion cases, defined by Event or Exposure codes 22 (Overexertion applies to cases, usually non-impact, in which the injury or illness resulted from excessive physical effort directed at an outside source of injury or illness. The physical effort may involve lifting, pulling, pushing, turning, wielding, holding, carrying, or throwing the source of injury/illness) and 23 (Repetitive motion applies when an injury or illness resulted from bodily motion which imposed stress or strain upon some part of the body due to a task's repetitive nature) as defined by BLS.

The SOII is a cooperative Federal–State program in which employer reports of occupational injuries and illnesses based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recordkeeping rules are collected from a nationally representative sample of private industry establishments. For the first time in 2008, the SOII provided national public sector estimates covering nearly 19 million state and local government workers. However, this objective tracks only workers in the private sector because BLS does not publish aggregate rate data for private industry and state and local governments that rely on “days away from work” data. SOII excludes the self-employed, farms with fewer than 11 employees, private household workers, and employees in Federal government agencies.

The incidence rates represent the number of illnesses per 10,000 full-time workers and were calculated as: (N/EH) x 20,000,000, where N= number of illnesses, EH=total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year, and 20,000,000=base for 10,000 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year).

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders continue to be a significant public health problem. Over 30 percent of all nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses with days away from work continue to be attributable to overexertion and repetitive motion injuries and illnesses.

Caveats and Limitations
Recent reports, including a 2009 GAO report, have questioned the completeness and accuracy of the employer reports included in SOII. BLS is conducting research to address the potential undercount in SOII, and the CDC's National Instiute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recently begun research to increase understanding of barriers and incentives for workers to report injuries. Additionally, in October 2009, OSHA began a program to emphasize recordkeeping, including having OSHA inspectors review occupational injury and illness records prepared by businesses.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. DOL. News Release. U.S. Labor Department's OSHA begins National Emphasis Program on recordkeeping to determine accuracy of worker injury and illness data. Washington, DC: Department of Labor, OSHA, October 1, 2009, O0-775-NAT. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=16488
  2. Government Accounting Office. Workplace safety and health: Enhancing OSHA's records audit process could improve the accuracy of worker injury and illness data. October 2009, GA)-10-10. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdfO-OSHA-200910.pdf" title="http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdf" target="_blank">http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdfO-OSHA-200910.pdf
  3. Ruser J. Examining evidence on whether BLS undercounts workplace injuries and illnesses. Monthly Labor Review, August 2008:20-32. http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/08/art2full.pdf;
  4. US Bureau of Labor Statistics (US BLS). Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Requiring Days Away from Work. 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009. Available at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/osh2.nr0.htm
  5. US Bureau of Labor Statistics (US BLS). Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007. Available at http://www.bls.gov/iif/oiics_manual_2007.pdf. Accessed March 29, 2010.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Surveillance System for Pneumoconiosis Mortality (NSSPM); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
2,430 (2005)
Target
2,187
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of deaths with pneumoconiosis (ICD-10 codes J60 to J66) coded as any mention on the death certificate (underlying or listed on the entity axis of the record)
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Pneumoconiosis death data are extracted directly from mortality data made available by the National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M). Any mention of deaths due to asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, or other and unspecified pneumoconioses on the death certificate are counted. Specifically, deaths counted are those with one or more of the above pneumoconioses based on the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision) codes listed as underlying cause or listed on the entity axis of the multiple-cause-of-death record. Data are restricted to decedents aged 15 years and older in order to more closely represent members of the working population.

While pneumoconiosis is preventable through effective control of worker exposure to occupational dusts, there are still over an average of 2,600 pneumoconiosis deaths per year since 2000. This objective plays an important role in maintaining attention to, and as appropriate, enhancing control of occupational exposures to hazardous dusts. In tracking mortality, it is important to note that pneumoconioses are typically chronic diseases with long latency, so death is substantially delayed from initial diagnosis (which is delayed from initial exposure).

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Work-related lung disease surveillance report. http://www2.cdc.gov/drds/WorldReportData 2008.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
628 (2007)
Target
565
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of deaths due to work-related homicides (BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) code 61)
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

CFOI uses multiple data sources, including death certificates, workers' compensation reports, reports to various regulatory agencies, police reports, medical examiner records, and newspaper reports, to identify and verify work-related fatalities.

A revised OIICS system will be used for 2011 data. Although there will be changes in the OIICS numbering system and structure, it is anticipated that comparable data will be available in 2011 and later.

An average of 12 workers die each week as a result of workplace homicides in the United States. Being male; aged 65 and over; Black, Hispanic, or Asian; foreign-born; self-employed; and handling money or providing protective services puts workers at increased risk of homicide. The jobs where employees are at risk of being murdered in the workplace share a number of common factors, including interacting with the public, handling exchanges of money, working alone or in small numbers, and working late at night or early morning hours. Workplace factors can be modified to reduce or eliminate the effects of these risk factors.

Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020
This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objective 20-5 in that the Healthy People 2010 objective tracked work-related homicides per 100,000 workers (rate) while this objective tracks the number of work-related homicides (count).

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Bureau of Labor Statistics. National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in 2008. Washington, DC: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, USDL 09-0979, August 20, 2009.
  2. NIOSH. Workplace violence prevention strategies and research needs. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH (DHHS) Pub. No. 2006-144.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Work Supplement (NEISS-WORK); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Consumer Prodcut Safety Commission (CDC/NIOSH and CPSC)
Current Population Survey (CPS); U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (Census and DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 10,000 
Baseline (Year)
8.4 (2007)
Target
7.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of emergency department treated injuries and illnesses among workers aged 15 years and older attributed to assaults and violent acts by person(s) (BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) code 61) (see Comments)
Denominator
Average annual hours at work for workers aged 15 years and older
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

An estimated 121,000 workers were treated in hospital emergency departments for work-related assaults in 2007. Work-related assaults can occur in any job setting, but are especially common in jobs that involve interaction with the public. Most work-related violence is associated with crime, such as robbery, and violence from clients, customers, or patients. Workplaces factors can be modified to reduce or eliminate work-related assaults.

A revised OIICS system will be used for 2011 data. Although there will be changes in the OIICS numbering system and structure, it is anticipated that comparable data will be available in 2011 and later.

Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020
This objective differs from Healthy People 2010 objective 20-6, which tracked work-related assaults using data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ National Crime Victimization Survey. This objective tracks emergency department visits for work-related assaults using data from the NEISS and CPS. Consequently, the Healthy People 2010 and 2020 rates are not comparable.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. NIOSH. Workplace violence prevention strategies and research needs. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH (DHHS) Pub. No. 2006-144.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance Program (ABLES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
22.5 (2008)
Target
20.2
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of persons aged 16 years and older with blood lead levels of 10 µg/dL or greater in States that participate in the ABLES program
Denominator
Number of employed persons aged 16 years and older, by State
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

ABLES is a state-based surveillance program of laboratory-reported adult blood lead levels funded by NIOSH in 40 states (as of 2010). The program's objective is to build state capacity to initiate, expand, or improve adult blood lead surveillance programs which can accurately measure trends in adult blood lead levels and which can effectively intervene to prevent lead over-exposures. The ABLES program aims to accomplish this objective by building state capacity to initiate or improve adult blood lead surveillance programs which can accurately measure trends in adult blood lead levels and which can effectively intervene to prevent lead over-exposures. ABLES states are required to have a mandatory state requirement that laboratories report blood lead level results to the state health department or designee. Starting in 2009, the ABLES case definition for elevated blood lead levels was changed from 25 µg to 10 µg/dL which is consistent with guidance from the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. CDC has also included in 2010, for the first time, elevated blood lead levels (defined as BLL =10 µg/dL) in the list of national notifiable conditions. Therefore, this measure uses the updated case definition of 10 µg/dL or greater.

Forty States reported 9,290 resident adults with elevated blood lead levels of 25 µg/dL or greater in 2008. The vast majority of elevated blood lead levels are work-related. Twenty-three States reported 17,572 resident adults with elevated blood lead levels of 10 µg/dL or greater in 2008. Despite important progress, overexposure to inorganic lead continues to be an important public health problem worldwide. Furthermore, recent research has increased concerns about the toxicity of lead at low doses.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. 2007. Medical Management Guidelines for Lead-Exposed Adults. http://www.aoec.org/documents/positions/MMG_FINAL.pdf
  2. CDC. Nationally Notifiable Non-Infectious Conditions. United States 2010. Elevated Blood Lead Levels: http://www.cdc.gov/osels/ph_surveillance/nndss/casedef/lead_current.htm
  3. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. 2009. Public Health Reporting and National Notification for Elevated Blood Lead Levels http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.cste.org/resource/resmgr/PS/09-OH-02.pdf
  4. Kosnett MJ, Wedeen RP, Rothenberg SJ, Hipkins KL, Materna BL, Schwartz BS, Hu H, Woolf A.Recommendations for medical management of adult lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Mar;115(3):463-71. http://www.ehponline.org/members/2006/9784/9784.pdf

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 10,000 
Baseline (Year)
4.4 (2008)
Target
4.0
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of reported nonfatal illnesses due to work-related skin disease and disorders
Denominator
Total number of hours worked by workers
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Skin diseases or disorders are illnesses involving the worker's skin that are caused by work exposure to chemicals, plants or other substances. Examples include: contact dermatitis, eczema, or rash caused by primary irritants and sensitizers or poisonous plants; oil acne; friction blisters, chrome ulcers; and inflammation of the skin. The SOII is a cooperative Federal–State program in which employer reports of occupational injuries and illnesses based on OSHA recordkeeping rules are collected from a nationally representative sample of private industry establishments.

For the first time in 2008, the SOII provided national public sector estimates covering nearly 19 million state and local government workers. The survey excludes the self-employed, farms with fewer than 11 employees, private household workers, and employees in Federal government agencies.

The incidence rates represent the number of illnesses per 10,000 full-time workers and were calculated as: (N/EH) x 20,000,000, where N= number of illnesses, EH=total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year, and 20,000,000=base for 10,000 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year. Information on the type of industry for the numerator is based on employer responses and converted to North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

Although reported occupational skin diseases or disorders (OSDs) have been reduced by approximately 50% over the last 10 years, they still represent one of the most frequently reported classes of occupational illnesses. OSDs occur in all industries and were the second leading cause of occupational illness in 2008.

Caveats and Limitations
Recent reports, including a 2009 GAO report, have questioned the completeness and accuracy of the employer reports included in SOII. BLS is conducting research to address the potential undercount in SOII, and the CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recently begun research to increase understanding of barriers and incentives for workers to report injuries. Additionally, in October 2009, OSHA began a program to emphasize recordkeeping, including having OSHA inspectors review occupational injury and illness records prepared by businesses.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. BLS [2009]. Survey of occupational injuries and illnesses. Nonfatal (OSHA recordable) injuries and illnesses. Industry incidence rates and counts. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Safety and Health Statistics Program. See News Release USDL 09-1302, October 29, 2009.
  2. DOL. News Release. U.S. Labor Department's OSHA begins National Emphasis Program on recordkeeping to determine accuracy of worker injury and illness data. Washington, DC: Department of Labor, OSHA, October 1, 2009, O0-775-NAT. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=16488
  3. Government Accounting Office. Workplace safety and health: Enhancing OSHA's records audit process could improve the accuracy of worker injury and illness data. October 2009, GA)-10-10. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdf00910.pdf
  4. Ruser J. Examining evidence on whether BLS undercounts workplace injuries and illnesses. Monthly Labor Review, August 2008:20-32.http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/08/art2full.pdf

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Quality of Worklife Module (QWL); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and National Science Foundation (CDC/NIOSH and NSF)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
*** Missing *** 
Numerator
Number of employees who have access to workplace stress management/reduction programs
Denominator
Total number of employees
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

NIOSH's Quality of WorkLife (QWL) module is designed to directly assess major workplace risk factors for job stress and provide multiple measures of well-being in the workforce. This survey has been administered as part of the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey to nationally representative samples of the U.S. workforce in 2002, 2006, and 2010. The question on stress management/reduction programs will be included for the first time in the 2010 QWL.

Job stress has been identified as a significant risk factor for a number of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and workplace injuries. Research indicates that up to one-third of all workers report high levels of stress on the job. Worksite programs to reduce stress tend to adopt either stress management (for example, helping workers cope with current levels of stress) or primary prevention (for example, altering sources of stress through job redesign). Although many of these programs have found to be effective in reducing levels of stress, additional knowledge is needed regarding which occupations are especially prone to the effects of stress, which aspects of organizational change in today’s workplace pose the greatest risk of job stress, and what interventions are most useful to control these risks.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII); Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL/BLS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 10,000 full-time workers 
Baseline (Year)
2.2 (2008)
Target
2
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of reported work-related non-fatal illnesses due to occupational hearing loss
Denominator
Total number of hours worked by workers
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The SOII is a cooperative Federal - State program in which employer reports are collected annually from a nationally representative sample of private industry establishments. The survey measures nonfatal injuries and illnesses only and excludes the self-employed, farms with fewer than 11 employees, private household workers, and employees in Federal government agencies. For the first time in 2008, the SOII provided national public sector estimates covering nearly 19 million state and local government workers.

Noise-induced hearing loss for recordkeeping purposes is a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more in either ear at 2000, 3000, and 4000 hertz and the employee's total hearing level is 25 decibels (dB) or more above the audiometric zero (also averaged at 2000, 3000, and 4000 hertz) in the same ear(s). The incidence rates represent the number of illnesses per 10,000 full-time workers and were calculated as: (N/EH) x 20,000,000, where N= number of illnesses, EH=total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year, and 20,000,000=base for 10,000 equivalent full-time workers (working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year. Information on the type of industry for the numerator is based on employer responses and converted to North American Industry Classification system (NAICS) codes.

Work-related noise-induced hearing loss continues to be a significant public health problem, accounting for nearly 10% of all recordable illnesses annually.

Caveats and Limitations
The SOII began tracking hearing loss in 2004, with technical support from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Although the employer reported data are useful, there are a few caveats to consider when assessing this data for work-related noise-induced hearing loss, specifically: • The BLS data are not a full sample. BLS samples a portion of the industries that submit data to the survey. • Most of the data recorded on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recordkeeping forms represent hearing loss from only one sector – Manufacturing. Moreover, in several key industry sectors including Construction and Mining, hearing loss is substantially under-reported, thereby artificially suppressing the overall incidence of hearing loss. • To be a “recordable” hearing loss, workers’ hearing thresholds must be substantially poorer than their baseline levels. In fact, by the time a worker has lost enough hearing to be recorded on the OSHA Log 300, he or she has met the criteria for hearing impairment. Thus, recordable hearing losses should be viewed as a sentinel of hearing impairment rather than as an indicator of early stages of occupational hearing loss. Recent reports, including a 2009 GAO report, have questioned the completeness and accuracy of the employer reports included in SOII. BLS is conducting research to address the potential undercount in SOII, and NIOSH has recently begun research to increase understanding of barriers and incentives for workers to report injuries. Additionally, in October 2009, OSHA began a program to emphasize recordkeeping, including having OSHA inspectors review occupational injury and illness records prepared by businesses.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. BLS [2009]. Survey of occupational injuries and illnesses. Nonfatal (OSHA recordable) injuries and illnesses. Industry incidence rates and counts. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Safety and Health Statistics Program. See News Release USDL 09-1302, October 29, 2009.
  2. DOL. News Release. U.S. Labor Department's OSHA begins National Emphasis Program on recordkeeping to determine accuracy of worker injury and illness data. Washington, DC: Department of Labor, OSHA, October 1, 2009, O0-775-NAT. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=16488
  3. Government Accounting Office. Workplace safety and health: Enhancing OSHA's records audit process could improve the accuracy of worker injury and illness data. October 2009, GA)-10-10. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1010.pdf00910.pdf
  4. Ruser J. Examining evidence on whether BLS undercounts workplace injuries and illnesses. Monthly Labor Review, August 2008:20-32.http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/08/art2full.pdf