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Environmental Health Data Details

EH-1 Reduce the number of days the Air Quality Index (AQI) exceeds 100, weighted by population and AQI Leading Health Indicators

Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Air Quality System (AQS); Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
days 
Baseline (Year)
2,200,000,000 (2008)
Target
1,980,000,000
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Weighted days with AQI greater than 100
Denominator
not applicable
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Leading Health Indicator
Environmental Quality
Methodology Notes

The previous calculation of the baseline and target erroneously included an additional undocumented step in the EH-1 calculation. The previous calculation divided the sum of the three-year average of AQI days over 100 (weighted by population and AQI) by the total population across all counties with at least one AQI day greater than 100. The calculation simplified the units (i.e., days, instead of AQI-weighted people-days) and yielded more digestible values; however, unintended consequences made it impossible to look at yearly trends in the metric.

This metric is designed to track the number of people exposed to unhealthy air quality days with some weighting for severity of that exposure. The revised calculation (i.e., following the original measure technical approach calculation and not including the additional step) applies adjustments so that poorer air quality days in areas with larger populations are given larger weights. When the yearly value for 2009 was calculated, EPA determined that the number of unhealthy AQI-weighted people-days was considerably lower than 2008. However, because many areas had no unhealthy days in 2009, the denominator in the erroneous calculation step was also smaller. The net effect was a 2009 value that was higher than the previous 10.85 baseline. This would imply, in the context of EH-1, that air quality deteriorated in 2009 relative to 2008, when it had not. The proposed revision of baseline and target values brings the baseline and target calculations in line with the existing definition of the measure and allows for meaningful interpretation of trends.

Steps in EH-1 Calculation

  1. For each year in the base period (e.g., for 2008 use 2006, 2007 and 2008), determine the daily AQI values by county.
  2. For days with AQI values over 100, divide the actual AQI value by 100.
  3. Sum these AQI-weighted days by year for each county.
  4. For each county, multiply the sum of yearly AQI-weighted days by the county’s population for a reference year (e.g., 2008).
  5. Average the population-weighted and AQI-weighted value for each county across the three years in the period.
  6. Sum the three-year average population-weighted and AQI-weighted values across all counties to determine the national metric value.

Simplified conceptual model showing why the revision is needed:

For simplicity, assume that only two counties have AQI days > 100 and that a single year can be representative of a three-year average. County A is a large population county with frequent episodes of poor air quality (e.g., 30 days with an average AQI of 120 on those days, population 2 million). County B is a smaller population county with less-frequent episodes of poor air quality (e.g., 6 days with an average AQI of 110, population 1 million). In the original calculation, the metric would have been: 72 million people days (County A) + 6.6 million people days (County B) / 3 million people = 26.2 days.

Now assume there’s a 10% improvement in ozone levels for the next year that affects all days equally. Assume there are still 30 days in County A but the average AQI is only 108. The improvement leads to no days with an AQI greater than 100 in County B. The original calculation would now be (30 * 1.08 * 2) million people days / 2 million people days, or 32.4 days. So despite the improvement in air quality, the original calculation leads to a counterintuitive increase in the number of days. This is fixed with the revised approach.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

Changed in 2012 from a standardized (by resident population of AQI counties) to an unstandardized measure. The original baseline was 10.85 days in 2006-08 and the original target was 9.76 days. The revised baseline is 2,200,000,000 days in 2006-08 and the revised target is 1,980,000,000 days.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Monitoring air quality to reduce health risks
    http://www.airnow.gov
EH-2 Increase use of alternative modes of transportation for work

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Community Survey (ACS); U.S. Census Bureau (Census)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
0.5 (2008)
Target
0.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of trips taken by bicycling
Denominator
Total number of trips
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the American Community Survey:

[NUMERATOR:]

How did this person usually get to work LAST WEEK? If this person usually used more than one method of transportation during the trip, mark (X) the box of the one used for most of the distance.

  1. Car, truck, or van
  2. Bus or trolley bus
  3. Streetcar or trolley car
  4. Subway or elevated
  5. Railroad
  6. Ferryboat
  7. Taxicab
  8. Motorcycle
  9. Bicycle
  10. Walked
  11. Worked at home ? SKIP to question 39a
  12. Other method
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Although the American Community Survey (ACS) produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, it is the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program that produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns and estimates of housing units for states and counties. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see Survey Methodology. Data are based on a sample and are subject to sampling variability. The degree of uncertainty for an estimate arising from sampling variability is represented through the use of a margin of error. The value shown here is the 90 percent margin of error. The margin of error can be interpreted roughly as providing a 90 percent probability that the interval defined by the estimate minus the margin of error and the estimate plus the margin of error (the lower and upper confidence bounds) contains the true value. In addition to sampling variability, the ACS estimates are subject to nonsampling error (for a discussion of nonsampling variability, see Accuracy of the Data). The effect of nonsampling error is not represented in these tables. Workers include members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were at work last week. While the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in ACS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. The 2008 Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in PRCS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. Estimates of urban and rural population, housing units, and characteristics reflect boundaries of urban areas defined based on Census 2000 data. Boundaries for urban areas have not been updated since Census 2000. As a result, data for urban and rural areas from the ACS do not necessarily reflect the results of ongoing urbanization.

National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), U.S. Department of Transportation, to the American Community Survey (ACS), U.S. Bureau of the Census for Healthy People 2020. The current data source is not as comprehensive because it only considers work-related trips, but provides Annual estimates compared to 5-6 years for NHTS.

Caveats and Limitations
Estimates are for work-related trips only. These account for less than one half of all trips.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Alternative transportation
    http://www.census.gov/acs/www/SBasics/SQuest/SQuest1.htm
  2. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Community Survey (ACS); U.S. Census Bureau (Census)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
2.8 (2008)
Target
3.1
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of trips taken by walking
Denominator
Total number of trips
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the American Community Survey:

[NUMERATOR:]

How did this person usually get to work LAST WEEK? If this person usually used more than one method of transportation during the trip, mark (X) the box of the one used for most of the distance.

  1. Car, truck, or van
  2. Bus or trolley bus
  3. Streetcar or trolley car
  4. Subway or elevated
  5. Railroad
  6. Ferryboat
  7. Taxicab
  8. Motorcycle
  9. Bicycle
  10. Walked
  11. Worked at home ? SKIP to question 39a
  12. Other method
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Although the American Community Survey (ACS) produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, it is the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program that produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns and estimates of housing units for states and counties. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see Survey Methodology. Data are based on a sample and are subject to sampling variability. The degree of uncertainty for an estimate arising from sampling variability is represented through the use of a margin of error. The value shown here is the 90 percent margin of error. The margin of error can be interpreted roughly as providing a 90 percent probability that the interval defined by the estimate minus the margin of error and the estimate plus the margin of error (the lower and upper confidence bounds) contains the true value. In addition to sampling variability, the ACS estimates are subject to nonsampling error (for a discussion of nonsampling variability, see Accuracy of the Data). The effect of nonsampling error is not represented in these tables. Workers include members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were at work last week. While the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in ACS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. The 2008 Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in PRCS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. Estimates of urban and rural population, housing units, and characteristics reflect boundaries of urban areas defined based on Census 2000 data. Boundaries for urban areas have not been updated since Census 2000. As a result, data for urban and rural areas from the ACS do not necessarily reflect the results of ongoing urbanization.

National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), U.S. Department of Transportation, to the American Community Survey (ACS), U.S. Bureau of the Census for Healthy People 2020. The current data source is not as comprehensive because it only considers work-related trips, but provides Annual estimates compared to 5-6 years for NHTS.

Caveats and Limitations
Estimates are for work-related trips only. These account for less than one half of all trips.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Alternative transportation
    http://www.census.gov/acs/www/SBasics/SQuest/SQuest1.htm
  2. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Community Survey (ACS); U.S. Census Bureau (Census)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
5.0 (2008)
Target
5.5
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of trips taken by mass transit
Denominator
Total number of trips
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the American Community Survey:

[NUMERATOR:]

How did this person usually get to work LAST WEEK? If this person usually used more than one method of transportation during the trip, mark (X) the box of the one used for most of the distance.

  1. Car, truck, or van
  2. Bus or trolley bus
  3. Streetcar or trolley car
  4. Subway or elevated
  5. Railroad
  6. Ferryboat
  7. Taxicab
  8. Motorcycle
  9. Bicycle
  10. Walked
  11. Worked at home ? SKIP to question 39a
  12. Other method
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Although the American Community Survey (ACS) produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, it is the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program that produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns and estimates of housing units for states and counties. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see Survey Methodology. Data are based on a sample and are subject to sampling variability. The degree of uncertainty for an estimate arising from sampling variability is represented through the use of a margin of error. The value shown here is the 90 percent margin of error. The margin of error can be interpreted roughly as providing a 90 percent probability that the interval defined by the estimate minus the margin of error and the estimate plus the margin of error (the lower and upper confidence bounds) contains the true value. In addition to sampling variability, the ACS estimates are subject to nonsampling error (for a discussion of nonsampling variability, see Accuracy of the Data). The effect of nonsampling error is not represented in these tables. Workers include members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were at work last week. While the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in ACS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. The 2008 Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in PRCS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. Estimates of urban and rural population, housing units, and characteristics reflect boundaries of urban areas defined based on Census 2000 data. Boundaries for urban areas have not been updated since Census 2000. As a result, data for urban and rural areas from the ACS do not necessarily reflect the results of Updated: Ongoing urbanization.

National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), U.S. Department of Transportation, to the American Community Survey (ACS), U.S. Bureau of the Census for Healthy People 2020. The current data source is not as comprehensive because it only considers work-related trips, but provides Annual estimates compared to 5-6 years for NHTS.

Caveats and Limitations
Estimates are for work-related trips only. These account for less than one half of all trips.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Alternative transportation
    http://www.census.gov/acs/www/SBasics/SQuest/SQuest1.htm
  2. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Community Survey (ACS); U.S. Census Bureau (Census)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
4.1 (2008)
Target
5.3
Target-Setting Method
Projection/trend analysis
Numerator
Number of persons who telecommute
Denominator
Number of workers
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the American Community Survey:

[NUMERATOR:]

How did this person usually get to work LAST WEEK? If this person usually used more than one method of transportation during the trip, mark (X) the box of the one used for most of the distance.

  1. Car, truck, or van
  2. Bus or trolley bus
  3. Streetcar or trolley car
  4. Subway or elevated
  5. Railroad
  6. Ferryboat
  7. Taxicab
  8. Motorcycle
  9. Bicycle
  10. Walked
  11. Worked at home ? SKIP to question 39a
  12. Other method
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Although the American Community Survey (ACS) produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, it is the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program that produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns and estimates of housing units for states and counties. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see Survey Methodology. Data are based on a sample and are subject to sampling variability. The degree of uncertainty for an estimate arising from sampling variability is represented through the use of a margin of error. The value shown here is the 90 percent margin of error. The margin of error can be interpreted roughly as providing a 90 percent probability that the interval defined by the estimate minus the margin of error and the estimate plus the margin of error (the lower and upper confidence bounds) contains the true value. In addition to sampling variability, the ACS estimates are subject to nonsampling error (for a discussion of nonsampling variability, see Accuracy of the Data). The effect of nonsampling error is not represented in these tables. Workers include members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were at work last week. While the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in ACS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. The 2008 Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS) data generally reflect the November 2007 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas; in certain instances the names, codes, and boundaries of the principal cities shown in PRCS tables may differ from the OMB definitions due to differences in the effective dates of the geographic entities. Estimates of urban and rural population, housing units, and characteristics reflect boundaries of urban areas defined based on Census 2000 data. Boundaries for urban areas have not been updated since Census 2000. As a result, data for urban and rural areas from the ACS do not necessarily reflect the results of ongoing urbanization.

National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), U.S. Department of Transportation, to the American Community Survey (ACS), U.S. Bureau of the Census for Healthy People 2020. The current data source is not as comprehensive because it only considers work-related trips, but provides Annual estimates compared to 5-6 years for NHTS.

Caveats and Limitations
Estimates are for work-related trips only. These account for less than one half of all trips.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Alternative transportation
    http://www.census.gov/acs/www/SBasics/SQuest/SQuest1.htm
  2. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey
EH-3 Reduce air toxic emissions to decrease the risk of adverse health effects caused by mobile, area, and major sources of airborne toxics

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Emissions Inventory (NEI); Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
1,800,000 (2005)
Target
1,000,000
Target-Setting Method
Projection/trend analysis
Numerator
Millions of tons of HAPS released by source category
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The data source name was changed by EPA from National Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) to National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The TRI tracks the 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted by fixed sources. The NEI combines TRI with other sources to produce estimates of total releases of HAPS from fixed and mobile sources. The list of airborne toxics that pose the greatest threat to public health is updated Annually to reflect new information related to industry airborne emissions and revised assessments of the danger posed by specific substances. To assess progress for this objective, however, the list of airborne toxics monitored will be “frozen” to those included on the 1993 list to ensure comparability of updates during the monitoring period.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Emissions Inventory (NEI); Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
1,300,000 (2005)
Target
1,700,000
Target-Setting Method
Modeling
Numerator
Millions of tons of HAPS released by source category
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The data source name was changed by EPA from National Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) to National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The TRI tracks the 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted by fixed sources. The NEI combines TRI with other sources to produce estimates of total releases of HAPS from fixed and mobile sources. The list of airborne toxics that pose the greatest threat to public health is updated Annually to reflect new information related to industry airborne emissions and revised assessments of the danger posed by specific substances. To assess progress for this objective, however, the list of airborne toxics monitored will be “frozen” to those included on the 1993 list to ensure comparability of updates during the monitoring period.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Emissions Inventory (NEI); Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
800,000 (2005)
Target
700,000
Target-Setting Method
Modeling
Numerator
Millions of tons of HAPS released by source category
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The data source name was changed by EPA from National Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) to National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The TRI tracks the 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted by fixed sources. The NEI combines TRI with other sources to produce estimates of total releases of HAPS from fixed and mobile sources. The list of airborne toxics that pose the greatest threat to public health is updated Annually to reflect new information related to industry airborne emissions and revised assessments of the danger posed by specific substances. To assess progress for this objective, however, the list of airborne toxics monitored will be “frozen” to those included on the 1993 list to ensure comparability of updates during the monitoring period.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS); Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (EPA/OW)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
92.0 (2008)
Target
91
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Number of persons served by community water supply utilities that do not have violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act Regulation
Denominator
Number of persons served by community water supplies
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)-Strategic Sub-objective For Drinking Water 2.1.1 Health-based violations include Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL) and Treatment Technique (TT) violations.

Year-to-year performance is expected to change over time as new standards take effect.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS); Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), CDC/NCID, and State health departments (MMWR and CDC/NCID and State Health Departments)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
7.0 (1999-2008)
Target
2
Target-Setting Method
Projection/trend analysis
Numerator
Average number of water-borne disease outbreaks
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Reporting is done Annually and published biennially in the Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Surveillance Summaries. Electronic reporting was launched in 2009 via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). Two criteria must be met for an event to be defined as a waterborne-disease outbreak associated with drinking water: 1) two or more persons epidemiologically linked by location of exposure to water, by time and characteristics of illness and 2) the epidemiologic evidence must implicate water as the probable source of illness. The data include only outbreaks from infectious agents and chemical poisoning from water intended for drinking. Community water systems are public water systems that have at least 15 service connections or serve an average of 25 residents for 60 days/year. A community water system serves year-round residents of a community, subdivision, or mobile home park.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Estimated Use of Water in the United States; Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, National Water Use Information Program (DOI/USGS/NWIS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
gallons 
Baseline (Year)
99.0 (2005)
Target
89.1
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Per capita water use in gallons/day for domestic purposes from a domestic public supply
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The data reported reflect domestic water use only and do not include water used in industrial or institutional settings. Domestic water use includes water used for normal household purposes such as drinking, food preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, flushing toilets and watering lawns and gardens. Water withdrawal is water removed from a ground/surface water source. USGS publishes this report 5 years. The 2005 report was released in 2009.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Water use and conservation
    http://water.usgs.gov/watuse

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Program; Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (EPA/OW)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
95.0 (2008)
Target
96.0
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Percent of beach-days assessed as open and safe for swimming
Denominator
Percent of beach-days assessed
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Reporting is done for those beaches, coastal and Great Lakes beaches, monitored through the beach season. Total available beach days are the sum of the length of each state/territory's beach season multiplied by the number of beaches in the state/territory. Notifications actions are reported as the number of days under advisory or closed.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

EH-8 Reduce blood lead levels in children

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
0.9 (2005-2008)
Target
Not applicable
Target-Setting Method
This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Numerator
Number of children aged 1 to 5 years with blood lead levels (BLLs) 10 or more μg/dL
Denominator
Number of children aged 1 to 5 years
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. CDC. Preventing Lead Exposure in Young Children: A Housing-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Lead Poisoning. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004.3.
  2. Gould, E. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(7):1162-1167.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
mean 
Baseline (Year)
1.5 (2005-2008)
Target
1.4
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Geometric mean of blood lead levels (BLLs) of children aged 1 to 5 years
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Changes Between HP2010 and HP2020

Recent evidence suggests that children suffer adverse health effects from BLLs substantially lower than 10 µg/dL. Moreover, there is no level of exposure of lead that has found to be safe for children. Consequently it is important not only to eliminate the prevalence of children with elevated BLLs (i.e. ≥ 10 µg/dL), but to also reduce the central measure of BLLs in the target population. Specifically, the addition of sub-objective b focuses attention on reducing the geometric mean of BLLs in young children.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. CDC. Preventing Lead Exposure in Young Children: A Housing-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Lead Poisoning. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004.3.
  2. Gould, E. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(7):1162-1167.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Comprehensive Environmental Response and Cleanup Information System (CERLIS); Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (EPA/OSWER)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
1,279 (2010)
Target
1,151
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
National Priority List sites
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

NPL sites are sites that are initially discovered by local and State agencies, businesses, EPA, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the public. If the risk to human health is significant enough, based on the number and toxicity of substances discovered at the site and its ability to affect surrounding populations, then the site is placed on NPL. NPL is a published list of the most hazardous waste sites in the country that are eligible for extensive, long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. The list of NPL sites used to monitor improvement was “frozen” in the baseline year. Additional sites may be added to the database during the decade, but will not be included in monitoring progress for this objective. Progress will be measured by the number of sites on the baseline year list that are “delisted”; delisting indicates a successful cleanup and reduction of health risk.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
14,963 (2008)
Target
9,819
Target-Setting Method
Projection/trend analysis
Numerator
Number of visits to any health care facility for treatment for pesticide poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The data source is the Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC; http://www.aapcc.org) National Poison Data System (NPDS). During 2007, 60 of the nation's 61 U.S. Poison Centers upload case data automatically. The median upload time is 14 minutes creating a real-time national exposure database and surveillance system. The measure for this objective includes only those pesticide exposures resulting in treatment at a Health Care facility. The total number of documented pesticide exposures (including those not requiring treatment) was 90,261.

Over 4.2 million calls were captured by NPDS in 2007: 2,482,041 human exposure calls, 1,602,489 information requests, and 131,744 nonhuman exposure calls. Substances involved most frequently in all human exposures were analgesics (12.5% of all exposures). The most common exposures in children less than age 6 were cosmetics/personal care products (10.7% of pediatric exposures). Drug identification requests comprised 66.8% of all information calls. NPDS documented 1,597 human fatalities from all sources and 16 due to pesticides.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Monitoring pesticide poisonings
    http://www.aapcc.org/DNN

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Toxics Release Inventory (TRI); Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
tons 
Baseline (Year)
1,940,973 (2008)
Target
1,750,000
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of tons released
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The TRI program has expanded significantly since its inception in 1987. The Agency has issued rules to roughly double the number of chemicals included in the TRI to approximately 650. Seven new industry sectors have been added to expand coverage significantly beyond the original covered industries, i.e. manufacturing industries. [TRI reporting industries primarily include manufacturing, metal and coal mining, electric utilities, and commercial hazardous waste treatment. Mobile sources emissions, which account for approximately 50% of all air toxics, as well as smaller sources such as gas stations and dry cleaners are not included in TRI.] Most recently, the Agency has reduced the reporting thresholds for certain persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals in order to be able to provide additional information to the public on these chemicals.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste; Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (EPA/OSWER)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
33.2 (2008)
Target
36.5
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Estimated weight in tons of municipal solid waste that is recycled or composted
Denominator
Estimated weight in tons of all municipal solid waste
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Estimates of municipal solid waste and the percent recycled and composted are derived using biennial estimates based on volume of material production and life cycle of materials, as well as samples of waste handled by municipal waste operators. These data are analyzed using an algorithm that produces national estimates. Annual estimates are based on projections from biennial estimates.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

EH-13 Reduce indoor allergen levels

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS); Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
units of allergen/gram of settled dust 
Baseline (Year)
0.51 (2006)
Target
0.46
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Units of cockroach allergen
Denominator
Grams of settled dust
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Dust samples are collected by vacuuming a specified area (for example, a bed), for a specified amount of time. The sample is collected on a sampling membrane or collection bag that is attached to the vacuum modified for this purpose. The sample is then sent to a laboratory to identify and quantify the presence of specific allergens. As of the 2006 AHHS, the 90th percentile of cockroach allergen was 0.51 Units/g in house dust samples. Targeting reductions in the concentrations at high percentiles (i.e., 90th percentile) is significant from a public health perspective because these exposures represent a worst case scenario for adverse health effects (i.e., asthma and allergies). Also, research has shown that there is an association between the presence of pest problems related to substandard housing making these homes important to target for the mitigation of hazards. Note, also, that a large percentage of AHHS households (86%) had non-detect values, making central measures of little utility.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS); Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
micrograms of allergen/gram of settled dust 
Baseline (Year)
0.16 (2006)
Target
0.14
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Micrograms of mouse allergen
Denominator
Grams of settled dust
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Dust samples are collected by vacuuming a specified area (for example, a bed), for a specified amount of time. The sample is collected on a sampling membrane or collection bag that is attached to the vacuum modified for this purpose. The sample is then sent to a laboratory to identify and quantify the presence of specific allergens. As of the 2006 AHHS, the 90th percentile of cockroach allergen was 0.51 Units/g in house dust samples. Targeting reductions in the concentrations at high percentiles (i.e., 90th percentile) is significant from a public health perspective because these exposures represent a worst case scenario for adverse health effects (i.e., asthma and allergies). Also, research has shown that there is an association between the presence of pest problems related to substandard housing making these homes important to target for the mitigation of hazards. Note, also, that a large percentage of AHHS households (86%) had non-detect values, making central measures of little utility.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Homes with Radon Mitigation Systems; Radon Vent Fan Manufacturers
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
10.2 (2007)
Target
30.0
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Number of homes with an operating mitigation system
Denominator
Total number of homes at or above 4pCi/L
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Radon in homes
    http://www.epa.gov/radon

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Builder Practices Survey; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHB Research Center)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
28.6 (2007)
Target
100
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Number of single family homes (SFH) built with radon-reducing features
Denominator
Total number of homes built, in all three radon zones, and especially in high radon potential areas (Zone 1)
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Radon in homes
    http://www.epa.gov/radon
EH-16 Increase the proportion of the Nation’s elementary, middle, and high schools that have official school policies and engage in practices that promote a healthy and safe physical school environment

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
51.4 (2006)
Target
56.5
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Has your state adopted a policy requiring districts or schools to have an indoor air quality management program?

  1. Yes
  2. No SKIP TO THE INTRODUCTION TO Q41

OR

Does your district have an indoor air quality management program?

  1. Yes
  2. No SKIP TO THE INTRODUCTION TO Q80

OR

121. Does your school have an indoor air quality management program?

  1. Yes
  2. No SKIP TO THE INTRODUCTION TO Q123
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
67.0 (2006)
Target
73.7
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Has your district adopted a policy regarding how schools should address mold problems?

  1. Yes
  2. No

OR

Does your school have a plan for how to address mold problems?

  1. Yes
  2. No
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
85.9 (2006)
Target
94.5
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Has your district adopted a policy regarding:

How to use hazardous materials?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How to label hazardous materials?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How to store hazardous materials?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How to dispose of hazardous materials?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How to reduce the use of hazardous materials?

  1. Yes
  2. No
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
57.9 (2006)
Target
63.7
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Does your district require or recommend that schools use spot treatments rather than widespread applications of pesticides?

  1. Required
  2. Recommend
  3. Neither

OR

During the past 12 months, how often:

Were spot treatments and baiting used rather than widespread applications of pesticides?

  1. Never
  2. Rarely
  3. Sometimes
  4. Almost Always or Always
  5. N/A
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
56.2 (2006)
Target
61.8
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Does your district require or recommend that schools clearly mark areas that have been treated with pesticides?

  1. Required
  2. Recommend
  3. Neither

OR

During the past 12 months, how often.

n. Were indoor and outdoor areas that had been treated with pesticides clearly marked?

  1. Never
  2. Rarely
  3. Sometimes
  4. Almost Always or Always
  5. N/A
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
65.4 (2006)
Target
71.9
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Does your district require or recommend that schools inform staff, students, and parents prior to the application of pesticide?

  1. Required
  2. Recommend
  3. Neither

OR

During the past 12 months, how often:

Were staff and students informed prior to the application of pesticide?

  1. Never
  2. Rarely
  3. Sometimes
  4. Almost Always or Always
  5. N/A
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
55.7 (2006)
Target
61.3
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Has your state adopted a policy requiring that districts or schools conduct periodic inspections:

That test drinking water outlets for lead?

  1. Yes
  2. No

OR

Has your district adopted a policy requiring that schools conduct periodic inspections.

  1. Yes
  2. No

That test drinking water outlets for lead?

  1. Yes
  2. No

OR

Does your school conduct periodic inspections.

  1. Yes
  2. No

That test drinking water outlets for lead?

  1. Yes
  2. No
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
58.8 (2006)
Target
64.7
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Has your district adopted a policy requiring schools to periodically:

Test drinking water for bacteria?

  1. Yes
  2. No

OR

During the past 12 months, was your school's drinking water tested for:

Bacteria?

  1. Yes
  2. No
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
55.2 (2006)
Target
60.7
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of schools that had the objective-specific program or practice
Denominator
Total number of schools in sample
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Physical School Environment

School Policy and Environment State Questionnaire - Public Use Version 9

The next section asks about the physical school environment, such as building maintenance, indoor air quality, pest control, and chemicals.

Has your district adopted a policy requiring schools to periodically:

Test drinking water for coliform?

  1. Yes
  2. No

OR

During the past 12 months, was your school's drinking water tested for:

Coliforms?

  1. Yes
  2. No
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

EH-17 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of persons living in pre-1978 housing that has been tested for the presence of lead-based paint or related hazards

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Numerator
*** Missing ***
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Numerator
*** Missing ***

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Numerator
*** Missing ***
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Numerator
*** Missing ***
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
EH-18 Reduce the number of U.S. homes that are found to have lead-based paint or related hazards

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS); Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
37,000,000 (2005-2006)
Target
33,300,000
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of homes with lead-based paint
Denominator
Number of homes
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The AHHS is a national survey of housing-related hazards in the U.S. The AHHS collects environmental concentrations of lead and other contaminants in and around a nationally-representative sample of U.S. homes. The AHHS II will be the third in a series of HUD-sponsored national residential environmental health surveys; in the previous surveys, field data collection was completed in 2000 (National Survey of lead and Allergens in Housing) and 2006 (American Healthy Homes Survey). Lead-based paint and associated hazards are prevalent in U.S. housing. The predominant route for exposure for children is by ingestion of lead-contaminated dust through normal hand-to-mouth behaviors, therefore reducing the prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in housing will reduce children’s lead exposure overall as well as the number of children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL) as defined by CDC. Reducing the number of homes with lead-based paint and residential lead-based paint hazards will reduce potential sources of lead that are the primary pathways for lead ingestion by children.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS); Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
15,300,000 (2005-2006)
Target
13,770,000
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of homes with paint-lead hazards
Denominator
Number of homes
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The AHHS is a national survey of housing-related hazards in the U.S. The AHHS collects environmental concentrations of lead and other contaminants in and around a nationally-representative sample of U.S. homes. The AHHS II will be the third in a series of HUD-sponsored national residential environmental health surveys; in the previous surveys, field data collection was completed in 2000 (National Survey of lead and Allergens in Housing) and 2006 (American Healthy Homes Survey). Lead-based paint and associated hazards are prevalent in U.S. housing. The predominant route for exposure for children is by ingestion of lead-contaminated dust through normal hand-to-mouth behaviors, therefore reducing the prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in housing will reduce children’s lead exposure overall as well as the number of children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL) as defined by CDC. Reducing the number of homes with lead-based paint and residential lead-based paint hazards will reduce potential sources of lead that are the primary pathways for lead ingestion by children.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS); Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
13,700,000 (2005-2006)
Target
12,330,000
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of homes with dust-lead hazards
Denominator
Number of homes
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The AHHS is a national survey of housing-related hazards in the U.S. The AHHS collects environmental concentrations of lead and other contaminants in and around a nationally-representative sample of U.S. homes. The AHHS II will be the third in a series of HUD-sponsored national residential environmental health surveys; in the previous surveys, field data collection was completed in 2000 (National Survey of lead and Allergens in Housing) and 2006 (American Healthy Homes Survey). Lead-based paint and associated hazards are prevalent in U.S. housing. The predominant route for exposure for children is by ingestion of lead-contaminated dust through normal hand-to-mouth behaviors, therefore reducing the prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in housing will reduce children’s lead exposure overall as well as the number of children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL) as defined by CDC. Reducing the number of homes with lead-based paint and residential lead-based paint hazards will reduce potential sources of lead that are the primary pathways for lead ingestion by children.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS); Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
3,800,000 (2005-2006)
Target
3,420,000
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of homes with soil-lead hazards
Denominator
Number of homes
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The AHHS is a national survey of housing-related hazards in the U.S. The AHHS collects environmental concentrations of lead and other contaminants in and around a nationally-representative sample of U.S. homes. The AHHS II will be the third in a series of HUD-sponsored national residential environmental health surveys; in the previous surveys, field data collection was completed in 2000 (National Survey of lead and Allergens in Housing) and 2006 (American Healthy Homes Survey). Lead-based paint and associated hazards are prevalent in U.S. housing. The predominant route for exposure for children is by ingestion of lead-contaminated dust through normal hand-to-mouth behaviors, therefore reducing the prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in housing will reduce children’s lead exposure overall as well as the number of children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL) as defined by CDC. Reducing the number of homes with lead-based paint and residential lead-based paint hazards will reduce potential sources of lead that are the primary pathways for lead ingestion by children.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
American Housing Survey (AHS); Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Census Bureau (HUD and Census)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
5.2 (2007)
Target
4.2
Target-Setting Method
Projection/trend analysis
Numerator
Number of housing units identified with moderate or severe physical problems
Denominator
Number of housing units that are regularly occupied
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the American Housing Survey:

[NUMERATOR:]

Does the (house/apartment) have a bathtub or shower for this household's use only?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Does the (house/apartment) have a flush toilet for this household's use only?

  1. Yes
  2. No

In the last 3 months, was there any time when all the toilets in the home were not working?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How many of these breakdowns lasted 6 hours or more?

  1. __________

Is all the wiring in the finished areas of your home concealed either in walls or metal coverings?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Does every room have an electric outlet or wall plug that works?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Have any fuses blown or circuit breakers tripped in the last 3 months?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How many times in the last 3 months?

  1. __________

Has water leaked into your home from outdoors in the last 12 months?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Where did the water come in?

  1. __________

Have there been water leaks in the (house/apartment) from INSIDE the building in the last 12 months?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Where did the water come in?

Does the (house/apartment) have hot and cold piped water?

  1. Yes
  2. No

What fuel is used MOST to heat the water?

  1. __________

Was your home ever completely without running water in the last 3 months?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How many times was it not available for 6 hours or more?

  1. __________

Does your home have a refrigerator?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Is it more than 5 years old?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Does your (house/apartment) have a cookstove or range with an oven?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Does your (house/apartment) have

an oven?

  1. Yes
  2. No

cooking burners?

  1. Yes
  2. No

[If yes:]

(Is it/are they) more than 5 years old?

  1. Yes
  2. No

What fuel is used MOST for cooking?

  1. __________

What type of heating equipment is used MOST to heat the (house/apartment)?

  1. __________

Last winter was there any time when the (house/apartment) was so cold for 24 hours or more that it caused anyone in your household discomfort?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Was that because the heating equipment broke down?

  1. Yes
  2. No

[If yes:]

How many times did (it/they/all) break down for 6 hours or more?

Was it cold for any other reason?

  1. Yes
  2. No

[If yes:]

What was the reason?

Does the (house/apartment) have a porch, deck, balcony, or patio?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Does the (house/apartment) have open cracks or holds in the inside walls or ceilings?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Does the (house/apartment) have holes in the floors?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Does the (house/apartment) have any area of peeling paint or broken plaster bigger than 8 inches by 11 inches?

  1. Yes
  2. No

In the last 3 months, have you seen any rats or signs of rats in the building?

  1. Yes
  2. No

[DENOMINATOR:]

Does (household member) usually live here?

  1. Yes
  2. No
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

A housing unit has severe physical problems if it has any of the following five problems: 1) Plumbing. Lacking hot or cold piped water or a flush toilet, or lacking both bathtub and shower, all inside the structure (and for the exclusive use of the unit, unless there are two or more full bathrooms). 2) Heating. Having been uncomfortably cold last winter for 24 hours or more because the heating equipment broke down, and it broke down at least three times last winter for at least 6 hours each time. 3) Electric. Having no electricity, or all of the following three electric problems: exposed wiring, a room with no working wall outlet, and three blown fuses or tripped circuit breakers in the last 90 days. 4) Hallways. Having all of the following four problems in public areas: no working light fixtures, loose or missing steps, loose or missing railings, and no working elevator. 5) Upkeep. Having any five of the following six maintenance problems: (1) water leaks from the outside, such as from the roof, basement, windows, or doors; (2) leaks from inside structure such as pipes or plumbing fixtures; (3) holes in the floors; (4) holes or open cracks in the walls or ceilings; (5) more than 8 inches by 11 inches of peeling paint or broken plaster; or (6) signs of rats in the last 90 days. A unit has moderate physical problems if it has any of the following five problems, but none of the severe problems: 1) Plumbing. On at least three occasions during the last 3 months, all the flush toilets were broken down at the same time for 6 hours or more (see "Flush toilet and flush toilet breakdowns''). 2) Heating. Having unvented gas, oil, or kerosene heaters as the primary heating equipment. 3) Kitchen. Lacking a kitchen sink, refrigerator, oven or burners inside the structure for the exclusive use of the unit. 4) Hallways. Having any three of the four problems listed under severe physical problems.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

EH-20 Reduce exposure to selected environmental chemicals in the population, as measured by blood and urine concentrations of the substances or their metabolites

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
µg/g of creatinine 
Baseline (Year)
50.40 (2003-2004)
Target
35.28
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Concentration level of urinary total arsenic (creatinine corrected) at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reference ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

Population-specific data were added: Age (6-11 years, 12-19 years, 20 years and over), Race/Ethnicity (Mexican American, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino), and Sex.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
µg/L 
Baseline (Year)
1.60 (2003-2004)
Target
1.12
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Concentration level of cadmium in blood samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 1 year and older is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reference ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

Population-specific data were added: Age (6-11 years, 12-19 years, 20 years and over), Race/Ethnicity (Mexican American, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino), and Sex.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
µg/dL 
Baseline (Year)
4.20 (2003-2004)
Target
2.94
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Concentration level of lead in blood samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 1 year and older is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reference ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

Population-specific data were added: Age (6-11 years, 12-19 years, 20 years and over), Race/Ethnicity (Mexican American, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino), and Sex.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
µg/L 
Baseline (Year)
1.80 (2003-2004)
Target
1.26
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Concentration level of mercury in blood samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 1 to 5 years is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reference ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
µg/L 
Baseline (Year)
4.60 (2001-2002)
Target
3.22
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Concentration level of mercury in blood samples at which 95 percent of the female population aged 16 to 49 years is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reference ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
ng/g of lipid 
Baseline (Year)
37.70 (2003-2004)
Target
26.39
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Lipid adjusted Concentration level of oxychlordane in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years and older is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reference ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
ng/g of lipid 
Baseline (Year)
1,860 (2003-2004)
Target
1,302
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Lipid adjusted concentration level of DDE in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
ng/g of lipid 
Baseline (Year)
56.50 (2003-2004)
Target
39.55
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Lipid adjusted concentration level beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
µg/g of creatinine 
Baseline (Year)
2.89 (2001-2002)
Target
2.02
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Urinary para-Nitrophenol (creatinine corrected) [Metabolite of Ethyl Parathion, Methyl Parathion, and Nitrobenzene] in population aged 6 years or more is below the measured level at which 95 percent of the population below the level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
µg/g of creatinine 
Baseline (Year)
9.22 (2001-2002)
Target
6.45
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Creatinine corrected urinary 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol [Metabolite of Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-methyl] in population aged 6 years or more is below the measured level at which 95 percent of the population below the level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport
EH-20 Reduce exposure to selected environmental chemicals in the population, as measured by blood and urine concentrations of the substances or their metabolites

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
µg/g of creatinine 
Baseline (Year)
3.10 (2001-2002)
Target
2.32
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Creatinine corrected urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
ng/g of lipid 
Baseline (Year)
97.10 (2003-2004)
Target
67.97
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Serum 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) (lipid adjusted) samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
ng/g of lipid 
Baseline (Year)
68.70 (2003-2004)
Target
48.09
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Serum 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (lipid adjusted) samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
ng/g of lipid 
Baseline (Year)
68.50 (2003-2004)
Target
47.95
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Serum 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD) (lipid adjusted) samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
µg/g of creatinine 
Baseline (Year)
9.70 (2003-2004)
Target
7.84
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Urinary Bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-Hydroxyphenyl] propane) (creatinine corrected) samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

Population-specific data were added: Age (6-11 years, 12-19 years, 20 years and over), Race/Ethnicity (Mexican American, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino), and Sex.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
µg/g of creatinine 
Baseline (Year)
12.4 (2003-2004)
Target
8.4
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Urinary Perchlorate (creatinine corrected) samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

Population-specific data were added: Age (6-11 years, 12-19 years, 20 years and over), Race/Ethnicity (Mexican American, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American only, not Hispanic or Latino), and Sex.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
µg/g of creatinine 
Baseline (Year)
91.60 (2003-2004)
Target
64.12
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Urinary Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (creatinine corrected) samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
ng/g of lipid 
Baseline (Year)
163.0 (2003-2004)
Target
114.1
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Serum 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) (lipid adjusted) samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years or more is below the measured level
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The National Report on Human Exposures to Environmental Chemicals provides unique exposure information to scientists, physicians, and health officials to help prevent disease that results from exposure to environmental chemicals. Specific public health uses of the exposure information in the National Report series are: - To determine which chemicals get into Americans and at what concentrations; - For chemicals with known toxicity levels, to determine the percent of the population with levels above those associated with adverse health effects; - To establish reverence ranges that can be used by physicians and scientists to determine whether a person has an unusually high exposure; - To assess the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure of Americans to specific chemicals; - To determine whether exposure levels are higher among minorities, children, women of childbearing age, or other vulnerable groups; To track, over time, trends in levels of exposure of the population; and - To set priorities for research on health effects of exposure. See http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport for laboratory and analytic methods used.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Exposure of humans to environmental chemicals
    http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
16 (2010)
Target
51
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of states that use health information systems to monitor environmental health
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is being implemented by CDC, in collaboration with federal, state, and local health and environment agencies. Its purpose is to use linked health effect, exposure, and hazard data for environmental public health surveillance. 16 states are actively tracking data; 22 states are funded. The 6 states that are funded, but not tracking are in the process of establishing their systems.

EH-22 Increase the number of States, Territories, Tribes, and the District of Columbia that monitor diseases or conditions that can be caused by exposure to environmental hazards

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
37 (2009)
Target
56
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of States, territories, and the District of Columbia monitoring lead poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The CSTE State Reportable Conditions Assessment (SRCA) assisted CSTE capture more robust information than we have collected in the past regarding each reportable condition. It is CSTE's charge to provide a complete and accurate list of reportable conditions by state and territory. The SRCA 2008 covers reporting requirements, as defined by regulation or legislation, for all conditions defined as reportable by clinicians (Health Care providers), laboratories, hospitals, and other reporters. The CSTE Reportable Conditions Data Inventory can be found here: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
27 (2009)
Target
56
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of States, Territories, and the District of Columbia monitoring pesticide poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The CSTE State Reportable Conditions Assessment (SRCA) assisted CSTE capture more robust information than we have collected in the past regarding each reportable condition. It is CSTE's charge to provide a complete and accurate list of reportable conditions by state and territory. The SRCA 2008 covers reporting requirements, as defined by regulation or legislation, for all conditions defined as reportable by clinicians (Health Care providers), laboratories, hospitals, and other reporters. The CSTE Reportable Conditions Data Inventory can be found here: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
23 (2009)
Target
56
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of States, Territories, and the District of Columbia monitoring mercury poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The CSTE State Reportable Conditions Assessment (SRCA) assisted CSTE capture more robust information than we have collected in the past regarding each reportable condition. It is CSTE's charge to provide a complete and accurate list of reportable conditions by state and territory. The SRCA 2008 covers reporting requirements, as defined by regulation or legislation, for all conditions defined as reportable by clinicians (Health Care providers), laboratories, hospitals, and other reporters. The CSTE Reportable Conditions Data Inventory can be found here: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
19 (2009)
Target
56
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of States, Territories, and the District of Columbia monitoring arsenic poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The CSTE State Reportable Conditions Assessment (SRCA) assisted CSTE capture more robust information than we have collected in the past regarding each reportable condition. It is CSTE's charge to provide a complete and accurate list of reportable conditions by state and territory. The SRCA 2008 covers reporting requirements, as defined by regulation or legislation, for all conditions defined as reportable by clinicians (Health Care providers), laboratories, hospitals, and other reporters. The CSTE Reportable Conditions Data Inventory can be found here: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
19 (2009)
Target
56
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of States, Territories, and the District of Columbia monitoring cadmium poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The CSTE State Reportable Conditions Assessment (SRCA) assisted CSTE capture more robust information than we have collected in the past regarding each reportable condition. It is CSTE's charge to provide a complete and accurate list of reportable conditions by state and territory. The SRCA 2008 covers reporting requirements, as defined by regulation or legislation, for all conditions defined as reportable by clinicians (Health Care providers), laboratories, hospitals, and other reporters. The CSTE Reportable Conditions Data Inventory can be found here: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
9 (2009)
Target
56
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of States, Territories, and the District of Columbia monitoring acute chemical poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The CSTE State Reportable Conditions Assessment (SRCA) assisted CSTE capture more robust information than we have collected in the past regarding each reportable condition. It is CSTE's charge to provide a complete and accurate list of reportable conditions by state and territory. The SRCA 2008 covers reporting requirements, as defined by regulation or legislation, for all conditions defined as reportable by clinicians (Health Care providers), laboratories, hospitals, and other reporters. The CSTE Reportable Conditions Data Inventory can be found here: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number 
Baseline (Year)
16 (2009)
Target
56
Target-Setting Method
Total coverage
Numerator
Number of States, Territories, and the District of Columbia monitoring carbon monoxide poisoning
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The CSTE State Reportable Conditions Assessment (SRCA) assisted CSTE capture more robust information than we have collected in the past regarding each reportable condition. It is CSTE's charge to provide a complete and accurate list of reportable conditions by state and territory. The SRCA 2008 covers reporting requirements, as defined by regulation or legislation, for all conditions defined as reportable by clinicians (Health Care providers), laboratories, hospitals, and other reporters. The CSTE Reportable Conditions Data Inventory can be found here: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Geospatial Research, Analysis and Services Program (GRASP); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
18.9 (2005-2006)
Target
18.9
Target-Setting Method
Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Numerator
Number of schools within 500ft of an interstate or federal or state highway
Denominator
Total number of Schools
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Data Description: Schools data were obtained from the 2007 Homeland Security Infrastructure Program (HSIP) database of schools, which contains data relevant from Sept-Dec 2005 pertaining to schools with any grades from preschool-12 in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. This file is based on data collected by MCH, a compiler of institutional data, which was geocoded against the NAVTEQ streets file and, secondarily, the GDT streets file. The source is updated Annually and maintained for analysis relevant to emergency response. The National Highway Planning Network (NHPN), a spatial dataset maintained and distributed by the Federal Highway Administration, was used to obtain roads data. In addition to containing ample metadata, the NHPN has the benefit of being freely and publicly available. The version used was published in August 2005 and therefore describes roads conditions much as they were when the schools data was collected in 2005. Processing: A new NHPN file was created with only designated interstates, federal highways, and state highways – those records where the variable “signT1” was equal to “I” “U” or “S.” The resultant layer was then joined to the 2007 HSIP schools layer through a one-to-one spatial join based on the closest match within a search radius of 500 feet. Only matched records were kept in the join to create an additional layer of “exposed” schools.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD); Consortium including Harvard University, University of Washington, Johns Hopkins University, University of Queensland, and the World Health Organization
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
number in thousands 
Baseline (Year)
2,200,000 (2004)
Target
2,000,000
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of deaths attributable to specific causes
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Adapted from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

The measure includes worldwide deaths due to poor water quality, sanitation, and insufficient hygiene. Poor water supply is composed of two factors - poor water quality (i.e. infection with pathogenic organisms), and poor water quantity (i.e. insufficient amounts for use in personal and domestic hygiene. Poor sanitation is lack of facilities for safe disposal of human excreta. Poor personal hygiene is considered inadequate personal cleansing such that transmission of infections still occurs. Poor domestic hygiene refers to inadequate cleansing of the home, food, or utensils such that transmission of infections still occurs.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. GBD Report, WHO, 2004 update Annex A - http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_AnnexA.pdf - p. 54
  2. Global Burden of Disease
    http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_AnnexA.pdf
  3. Huttly, S. Water, sanitation and personal hygiene. In: Murray, C.J., and Lopez, A.D., eds. Quantifying Global Health Risks: The Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Risk Factors. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.
  4. The World Resources Institute. World Resources: A Guide to the Global Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996-1997