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HC/HIT-12.1 Data Details

HC/HIT-12.1 Increase the proportion of crisis and emergency risk messages embedded in print and broadcast news stories that explain what is known about the threat to human health

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
CDC Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication Best Practices Study; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of the Associate Director for Communication (CDC/OADC)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Baseline (Year)
83.5 (2010-2011)
Target-Setting Method
Minimal statistical significance
The number of crisis and emergency risk messages embedded in print and broadcast news stories that explain what is known about threat to human health
Crisis and emergency risk messages embedded in print and broadcast news stories about events that affect the public’s health
Data Collection Frequency
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

In communication research, “messages” is a specialized term and does not imply only “official” communication. Messages can be from any source and circulate through different channels.

There is an extensive literature on the characteristics that make crisis and emergency risk communication messages effective. Experts have labeled these characteristics available to the public were consistent with these “best practices”. “Best practices” were identified by an expert panel that reviewed and synthesized a range of publications on emergency and crisis communication, and reached consensus on six crisis and emergency risk messaging best practices. These six best practices are: explain what is known, explain what is not known, explain how or why the event happened, promote action, express empathy, and express commitment. The proportion estimates for these six different crisis and emergency risk message best practices were calculated.

CDC staff conducted a content analysis of newspaper and television news coverage of foodborne illness outbreaks and natural disasters. The content analysis includes an examination of articles in major U.S. newspapers and evening news broadcasts from five U.S. networks appearing in 2010-2011. Newspaper stories of the events described in the broadcast sample were obtained via a LexisNexis search of the top 25 circulated newspapers in the U.S., that combined, reach almost 1 out of every 4 U.S. households. The Vanderbilt Television News Archive, the most comprehensive broadcast archive in the world and the authoritative source for Library of Congress archived recordings, was used to search evening news broadcasts from U.S. national television networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, CNN, and FOX). On average, about 24 million Americans watched one of the five news programs each night during 2011. These numbers likely understate the reach of news stories that also appear on the networks’ web sites and mobile platforms and are broadcast on radio stations. Harris Interactive reports that Americans still trust major media outlets to deliver fair and unbiased news.

Staff analyzed and coded 186 foodborne outbreak event stories and 184 natural disaster event stories (Total N=370) for the presence or absence of the six best practices in crisis and emergency risk communication. Coders achieved an 89% inter-coder agreement level using the Holsti formula, and a Cohen’s Kappa of 0.71 was calculated, indicating substantial agreement. Frequencies of crisis and emergency risk message best practices were counted. The frequency of messages exemplifying one of the six best practices divided by the total number of stories yielded proportions of messages that conformed to one of the six best practices.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

In 2013, objective HC/HIT-12 was moved from developmental to measurable status and revised from a single objective to six related objectives on crisis and emergency risk message best practices. This objective addresses the proportion of crisis and emergency risk messages that explain the threat to human health.


Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Harris Interactive. Americans have broad trust in media in general. Accessed March 29, 2013.
  2. Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism. The State of the News Media 2013. Accessed March 29, 2013: