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Environmental Health

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Alternative transportation to work, 2008–2012

Increase Desired

SOURCE: American Community Survey (ACS), Department of Commerce/Census Bureau.

NOTE: Data are for the proportion of workers aged 16 and over who used alternative modes of transportation for work: bicycling (objective EH-2.1), walking (objective EH-2.2), mass transit (objective EH-2.3), or telecommuting (objective EH-2.4).

The proportion of workers aged 16 and over who walked to work (2.8%) or used mass transit (5.0%) did not change between 2008 and 2012. There were slight increases from 2008 to 2012 in the proportion of workers aged 16 and over who bicycled to work (from 0.5% to 0.6%) or telecommuted (4.1% to 4.4%); however, data were unavailable in Healthy People 2020 to assess the statistical significance of these changes.

Revised: Monday, August 25, 2014

Alternative transportation to work, 2010–12

Increase Desired

SOURCE: American Community Survey (ACS), Department of Commerce/Census Bureau.

NOTES: Data are for the proportion of workers aged 16 and over who used alternative modes of transportation for work: walking (objective EH-2.2), mass transit (objective EH-2.3), or telecommuting (objective EH-2.4). The single race categories include persons who reported only one racial group.

In 2010–12, 11.6% of black workers aged 16 and over used mass transit, compared with 10.5% of Asian and 3.3% of white workers aged 16 and over. Additionally, 4.1% of American Indian or Alaska Native workers aged 16 and over walked to work, compared with 4.0% of Asian, 2.8% of black and 2.6% of white workers aged 16 and over. However, data were unavailable in Healthy People 2020 to assess the statistical significance of these differences.

 
Revised: Monday, August 25, 2014

Pesticide exposure resulting in visit to health care facility, 1997–2012

Decrease Desired

SOURCE: National Poison Data System (NPDS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC).

NOTE: Data are for the number of pesticide exposures that resulted in visits to a health care facility.

The number of pesticide exposures resulting in visits to a health care facility decreased 36.2% between 1997 and 2012, from 22,933 to 14,629.

 
Revised: Monday, August 25, 2014

Exposure to environmental chemicals—lead and cadmium, 1999–2000 to 2009–10

Decrease Desired

SOURCES: National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.

NOTE: Data are for the concentration levels of cadmium (in µg/L, objective EH-20.2) and lead (in µg/dL, objective EH-20.2) in blood samples at which 95% of the population aged 1 year and over was below the measured level.

The concentration level of lead in blood samples at which 95% of the population aged 1 year and over was below the measured level decreased 34.0% from 1999–2000 to 2009–10, from 5.0 to 3.3 µg/dL. On the other hand, the concentration level of cadmium (1.4 µg/L) in blood samples at which 95% of the population aged 1 year and over was below the measured level did not change from 1999–2000 to 2009–10.

Revised: Monday, August 25, 2014

Exposure to environmental chemicals—Bisphenol A, 2003–04 to 2009–10

Decrease Desired

SOURCES: National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.

NOTES: Data are for the concentration level (in µg/g of creatinine) of Bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-Hydroxyphenyl] propane) (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95% of the population aged 6 years and over was below the measured level. Respondents were asked to select one or more races. The categories `white, non-Hispanic’ and `black, non-Hispanic’ include persons who reported only one racial group. Persons of Mexican-American origin may be any race.

The concentration level of Bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-Hydroxyphenyl] propane) (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95% of the population aged 6 years and over was below the measured level (i.e., the 95th percentile) decreased 28.6% from 2003–04 to 2009–10, from 11.2 to 8.0 µg/g, and varied by race and ethnicity. For example, in 2009–10, the Mexican American population aged 6 years and over had a 95th percentile of 8.7 µg/g, compared with 8.6 µg/g for the non-Hispanic white and 6.7 µg/g for the non-Hispanic black populations aged 6 years and over. However, these differences were not statistically significant.

Revised: Monday, August 25, 2014

National Snapshots Help

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 NATIONAL SNAPSHOTS

A User's Guide

  1. National snapshots provide a visual display of progress for selected objectives in each Healthy People 2020 Topic Area, whenever data are available.

  2. The snapshot heading describes the snapshot theme, the population to which the snapshot applies (when needed for clarification), and the data year(s). The snapshot heading is not meant to capture the full scientific scope of the objective(s) that is (are) displayed. The user can find complete technical information about the objective(s) in the Data Details.

  3. The snapshot visual display is generally one of three types: a line graph, a bar chart, or a map. 

  4. The snapshot notes and footnotes indicate any technical information about the data that the user needs to correctly interpret the visual display, together with any key data limitations (when applicable). Although the snapshots are intended to be standalone, the user should consult the objective(s) Data Details for the full range of methodology issues that may impact interpretation.

  5. The snapshot source(s) indicate the data source(s) used to create the visual display.

  6. Age-adjusted data are adjusted using the year 2000 standard population.

  7. Education and income are the primary measures of socioeconomic status in Healthy People 2020. Unless otherwise noted, income is defined as a family’s income before taxes; thus, the terms “income” and “family income” are used interchangeably in the snapshots.

  8. To facilitate comparisons among groups and over time, while adjusting for family size and for inflation, Healthy People 2020 categorizes family income using the Poverty Threshold (PT), sometimes also referred to as the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), developed by the Census Bureau. Unless otherwise overridden by considerations specific to the data system, the five categories of family income primarily used are: 

    1. Below the PT (i.e., less than 100% of the PT) 

    2. At 100%–199% of the PT 

    3. At 200%–399% of the PT 

    4. At 400%–599% of the PT 

    5. At or above 600% of the PT.

  9. A snapshot narrative paragraph highlights some key features of the visual display. The narrative text is not meant to provide an exhaustive analysis of the data displayed. For a more in-depth analysis, the user should refer to the applicable data table(s) and objective(s) Data Details.

  10. The user should keep in mind the following: 

    1. When two rates or proportions are highlighted for comparison (and measures of variability are available), the user may interpret the highlighted difference to be statistically significant at the 0.05 level, unless otherwise stated.

    2. Only selected differences are highlighted in the narrative text. Differences visible in the visual data display but not highlighted in the text still may well be statistically significant.

Revised: Monday, August 25, 2014