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Social Determinants

Latest Data 

Explore the latest data for the LHI topic Social Determinants.
 
Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going 
The on-time graduation rate in public schools, defined by the percentage of students awarded a high school diploma 4 years after starting 9th grade, increased by 2%, from 79% in 2010–11 to 81% in 2012–13, moving toward the HP2020 target of 87%. Disparities in on-time graduation rates by race/ethnicity remain.
 
Although an education measure is the Leading Health Indicator for this topic, many Healthy People 2020 objectives address social determinants to improve population health, including access to quality and stable housing. Between 2007 and 2011, the percentage of households that spent more than 30% of their income on housing increased by 11.0%, from 34.6% to 38.4%.  For households that spent more than 50% of their income on housing, the increase was 18.8%, from 15.4% to 18.3%. The percentage of households that spent more than 30% or 50% of their income on housing increased as the educational attainment of the head of household decreased.
 
To learn more about the social determinants of health, explore our collection of resources.
 
Leading Health Indicators
Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator.
Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (AH-5.1)
  • Healthy People 2020 objective AH-5.1 tracks the 4-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR) in public high schools. ACGR is a measure of on-time graduation.
    • HP2020 Baseline: In the 2010–11 school year, 79% of students attending public schools graduated with a regular diploma 4 years after starting 9th grade. 
    • HP2020 Target: 87%, a 10% improvement over the baseline, which was established for the 2010–11 school year. 
  • On-time graduation estimates have increased from 79% in the 2010–11 school year to 81% in the 2012–13 school year.  
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic population had the highest (best) rate of on-time graduation, 89% for the 2012–13 school year.
    • Rates for other subgroups were:
      • White, non-Hispanic: 87%
      • Hispanic: 75%
      • Black, non-Hispanic: 71% 
      • American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic: 70%
 
On-time High School Graduation Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2012–13
Social Determinants Web Graphic
Data Source: Common Core of Data (CCD), ED/NCES.
 
Notes:
  • Differences and trends could not be tested for statistical significance.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.  
  • Data are measured using the 4-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR). The 4-year ACGR is the number of students who graduate in 4 years or less with a regular high school diploma divided by the number of students who form the adjusted cohort for the graduating class. From the beginning of 9th grade, students who are entering that grade for the first time form a cohort that is “adjusted” by adding any students who subsequently transfer into the cohort and subtracting any students who subsequently transfer out, emigrate to another country, or die. 
  • Estimates are for any of the 50 states and the District of Columbia that reported all data elements.   
  • Exceptions for the 2010–11 school year: Data imputed for Idaho, Kentucky, and Oklahoma.
  • Exceptions for the 2011–12 school year: Data imputed for Idaho, Kentucky, and Oklahoma.
  • Exceptions for the 2012–13 school year: Data imputed for Idaho.
  • This objective was revised. The averaged freshman graduation rate (AFGR) was previously used to measure this objective. In May 2015, the measure used for this objective was changed to the 4-year ACGR.
  • Data in this report may be different from what is currently shown on the Healthy People 2020 website.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the Common Core of Data (CCD), ED/NCES.