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Social Determinants

Latest Data 

Explore the latest data for the LHI topic Social Determinants.
Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going 
On-time graduation rates in public schools, measured as students awarded a high school diploma 4 years after starting 9th grade, have increased by 8%, from 75% in 2007–08 to 81% in 2011–12, moving toward the HP2020 target of 82%. However, disparities in on-time graduation by race/ethnicity remain.
Although an education measure is the Leading Health Indicator for this topic, many Healthy People 2020 objectives address social determinants to improve population health. Healthy People 2020 organizes the social determinants of health around 5 key domains: 
  • Economic Stability
  • Education
  • Health and Health Care
  • Neighborhood and Built Environment
  • Social and Community Context
To learn more about the social determinants of health, explore our new collection of resources
Leading Health Indicators
Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator.

Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator:  

  • Healthy People 2020 objective AH-5.1 tracks the Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR) in public schools. The AFGR is an estimate of on-time graduation.
    • HP2020 Baseline: In the 2007–08 school year, 75% of students attending public schools graduated with a regular diploma 4 years after starting 9th grade. 
    • HP2020 Target: 82%, a 10% improvement over the baseline. 
  • On-time graduation rates have increased from 73% in the 2001–02 school year to 81% in the 2011–12 school year.  
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic population had the highest (best) rate of on-time graduation, 93%, for the 2011–12 school year. Rates for other groups were:
    • White, non-Hispanic: 85%
    • American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic: 68%
    • Hispanic: 76%
    • Black, non-Hispanic: 68%

On-time High School Graduation Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2011–12

SDOH Web Graphic

Data Source: Common Core of Data (CCD), ED/NCES.


  • Differences and trends could not be tested for statistical significance.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.  
  • AFGR is an estimate of the percentage of an entering freshman class graduating in 4 years. For 2008–09, it equals the total number of diploma recipients in 2008–09 divided by the average membership of the 8th grade class in 2004–05, the 9th grade class in 2005–06, and the 10th grade class in 2006–07.  
  • Estimates are for the District of Columbia and any of the 50 states that reported all data elements. Data do not include students served by Bureau of Indian Education and Department of Defense schools. 
  • For the 2007–08 school year, estimates for race/ethnicity do not include data from Delaware, Maine, or Nevada.