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Environmental Health

Outdoor Air Quality

EH-1 Reduce the number of days the Air Quality Index (AQI) exceeds 100, weighted by population and AQI Leading Health Indicators

Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

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Baseline: 2,200,000,000 Air Quality Index (AQI)-weighted people days exceeded 100 on the AQI in 2008
Target: 1,980,000,000 AQI-weighted people days
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Air Quality System (AQS), EPA
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objectives with the same definition were 08-01a through 08-01g.
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Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
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EH-2 Increase use of alternative modes of transportation for work
Baseline: 0.5 percent of trips were made to work via bicycle in 2008
Target: 0.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Community Survey (ACS), Census
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-02a.
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Baseline: 2.8 percent of trips were made to work via walking in 2008
Target: 3.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Community Survey (ACS), Census
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-02b.
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Baseline: 5.0 percent of trips were made to work via mass transit in 2008
Target: 5.5 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Community Survey (ACS), Census
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-02c.
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Baseline: 4.1 percent of employees telecommuted in 2008
Target: 5.3 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: American Community Survey (ACS), Census
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-02d.
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EH-3 Reduce air toxic emissions to decrease the risk of adverse health effects caused by mobile, area, and major sources of airborne toxics
Baseline: 1,800,000 tons of mobile sources of air toxic emissions were reported in 2005
Target: 1,000,000 tons (2015 modeled data to be reported in 2020)
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Emissions Inventory (NEI), EPA
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-04.
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Baseline: 1,300,000 tons of area sources of air toxic emissions were reported in 2005
Target: 1,700,000 tons (2015 modeled data to be reported in 2020)
Target-Setting Method: Modeling
Data Source: National Emissions Inventory (NEI), EPA
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Baseline: 800,000 tons of major sources of air toxic emissions were reported in 2005
Target: 700,000 tons
Target-Setting Method: Modeling
Data Source: National Emissions Inventory (NEI), EPA
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Water Quality

Baseline: 92.0 percent of persons served by community water systems received a supply of drinking water that meets the regulations of the Safe Drinking Water Act in 2008
Target: 91 percent
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Source: Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS), EPA/OW
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-05.
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Baseline: 7.0 outbreaks per year developed from water intended for drinking among persons served by community water systems in 1999-2008
Target: 2 outbreaks
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS), MMWR and CDC/NCID and State Health Departments
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-06.
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Baseline: 99.0 gallons of public-supplied domestic water per capita were withdrawn per capita in 2005
Target: 89.1 gallons per capita
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Estimated Use of Water in the United States, DOI/USGS/NWIS
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-07.
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Baseline: 95.0 percent of beach days were open and safe for swimming during the 2008 swimming season
Target: 96.0 percent
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Source: Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Program, EPA/OW
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-09.
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Toxics and Waste

EH-8 Reduce blood lead levels in children
Baseline: 0.9 percent of children had elevated blood lead levels in 2005–08
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-11.
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Baseline: 1.5 µg/dL was the average blood lead level in children aged 1 to 5 years in 2005–08
Target: 1.4 µg/dL average blood lead level in children aged 1 to 5 years
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 1,279 hazardous sites presented risks to human health and the environment in 2010
Target: 1,151 sites
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Comprehensive Environmental Response and Cleanup Information System (CERLIS), EPA/OSWER
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-12a.
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Baseline: 14,963 pesticide exposures resulted in visits to a health care facility in 2008
Target: 9,819 pesticide exposures
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Poison Data System (NPDS)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-13.
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Baseline: 1,940,973 tons of toxic pollutants were released into the environment in 2008
Target: 1,750,000 tons
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), EPA
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-14b.
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Baseline: 33.2 percent of municipal solid waste was recycled in 2008
Target: 36.5 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste, EPA/OSWER
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-15.
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Healthy Homes and Healthy Communities

EH-13 Reduce indoor allergen levels
Baseline: 0.51 units of cockroach allergen/gram of settled dust were reported in 2006
Target: 0.46 units of cockroach allergen/gram of settled dust
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS), HUD
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-16c.
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Baseline: 0.16 micrograms of mouse allergen/gram of settled dust were reported in 2006
Target: 0.14 micrograms of mouse allergen/gram of settled dust
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS), HUD
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Baseline: 10.2 percent of homes with radon levels of 4 pCi/L or more prior to mitigation had installed a radon mitigation system in 2007
Target: 30.0 percent of homes with radon levels at or above 4 Pico curies per liter of air (pCi/L).
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Source: Homes with Radon Mitigation Systems, Radon Vent Fan Manufacturers
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-19.
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Baseline: 28.6 percent of SFH homes built in high-radon-potential areas included radon-reducing features in 2007
Target: 100 percent of homes in high-radon-potential areas built to include radon-reducing features
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Source: National Builder Practices Survey, National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHB Research Center)
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EH-16 Increase the proportion of the Nation’s elementary, middle, and high schools that have official school policies and engage in practices that promote a healthy and safe physical school environment
Baseline: 51.4 percent of the Nation’s elementary, middle, and high schools had an indoor air quality management program, as reported in 2006
Target: 56.5 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS), CDC/NCHHSTP
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-20.
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EH-17 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of persons living in pre-1978 housing that has been tested for the presence of lead-based paint or related hazards
EH-18 Reduce the number of U.S. homes that are found to have lead-based paint or related hazards
Baseline: 37,000,000 homes were found to have lead-based paint in 2005–06
Target: 33,300,000 homes with lead-based paint
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS), HUD
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Baseline: 15,300,000 homes had paint-lead hazards in 2005–06
Target: 13,770,000 homes with paint-lead hazards
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS), HUD
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Baseline: 13,700,000 homes had dust-lead hazards in 2005–06
Target: 12,330,000 homes with dust-lead hazards
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS), HUD
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Baseline: 3,800,000 homes had soil-lead hazards in 2005–06
Target: 3,420,000 homes with soil-lead hazards
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS), HUD
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Baseline: 5.2 percent of housing units had moderate or severe physical problems in 2007
Target: 4.2 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: American Housing Survey (AHS), HUD and Census
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-23.
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Infrastructure and Surveillance

EH-20 Reduce exposure to selected environmental chemicals in the population, as measured by blood and urine concentrations of the substances or their metabolites
Baseline: 50.40 µg/g of creatinine: Concentration level of urinary total arsenic (creatinine corrected) at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 35.28 µg/g of creatinine
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25a.
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Revision History: This objective was revised. Read more about the revision history.
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Baseline: 1.60 µg/L: Concentration level of cadmium in blood samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 1 year and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 1.12 µg/L
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25b.
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Baseline: 4.20 µg/L: Concentration level of lead in blood samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 1 year and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 2.94 µg/dL
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25c.
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Baseline: 1.80 µg/L: Concentration level of mercury in blood samples at which 95 percent of children aged 1 to 5 years is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 1.26 µg/L
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-20e.
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Baseline: 4.60 µg/L: Concentration level of mercury in blood samples at which 95 percent of females aged 16 to 49 years is below the measured level in 2001–02
Target: 3.22 µg/L
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-20q.
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Baseline: 37.70 ng/g of lipid: Concentration level of oxychlordane (lipid adjusted) in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 26.39 ng/g of lipid
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25m.
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Baseline: 1,860 ng/g of lipid: Concentration level of DDE (lipid adjusted) in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years or more is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 1,302 ng/g of lipid
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25o.
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Baseline: 56.50 ng/g of lipid: Concentration level of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (lipid adjusted) in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 39.55 ng/g of lipid
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-20p.
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Baseline: 2.89 µg/g of creatinine: Concentration level of para-nitrophenol (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level in 2001–02
Target: 2.02 µg/g of creatinine
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-24b.
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Baseline: 9.22 µg/g of creatinine: Concentration level of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in urine samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level in 2001–02
Target: 6.45 µg/g of creatinine
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-24c.
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Baseline: 3.10 µg/g of creatinine: Concentration level of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level in 2001–02
Target: 2.32 µg/g of creatinine
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25h.
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Baseline: 97.10 ng/g of lipid: Concentration level of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) (lipid adjusted) in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 67.97 ng/g of lipid
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25j.
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Baseline: 68.70 pg/g of lipid: Concentration level of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (lipid adjusted) in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 48.09 pg/g of lipid
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Baseline: 68.50 pg/g of lipid: Concentration level of 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD) (lipid adjusted) in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 47.95 pg/g of lipid
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-25k.
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Baseline: 9.70 µg/g of creatinine: Concentration level of bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-hydroxyphenyl] propane) (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 7.84 µg/g of creatinine
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Baseline: 12.4 µg/g of creatinine: Concentration level of perchlorate (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 8.4 µg/g of creatinine
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Baseline: 91.60 µg/g of creatinine: Concentration level of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 6 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 64.12 µg/g of creatinine
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Baseline: 163.0 ng/g of lipid: Concentration level of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) (lipid adjusted) in serum samples at which 95 percent of the population aged 12 years and older is below the measured level in 2003–04
Target: 114.1 ng/g of lipid
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Sources: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS; National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH
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Baseline: 16 states used an integrated information system to monitor environmental health in 2010
Target: 51 States and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, CDC
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-26.
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EH-22 Increase the number of States, Territories, Tribes, and the District of Columbia that monitor diseases or conditions that can be caused by exposure to environmental hazards
Baseline: 37 States and the District of Columbia monitored lead poisoning in 2009
Target: 56 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-27a.
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Baseline: 27 States monitored pesticide poisoning in 2009
Target: 56 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-27b.
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Baseline: 23 States monitored mercury poisoning in 2009
Target: 56 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-27c.
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Baseline: 19 States monitored arsenic poisoning in 2009
Target: 56 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-27d.
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Baseline: 19 States monitored cadmium poisoning in 2009
Target: 56 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-27e.
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Baseline: 9 States monitored acute chemical poisoning in 2009
Target: 56 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-27g.
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Baseline: 16 States monitored carbon monoxide poisoning in 2009
Target: 56 States, Territories, and the District of Columbia
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: State Reportable Conditions Data Inventory, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-27h.
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Baseline: 18.9 percent of schools were located within 500 feet of an interstate or Federal or State highway in 2005–06
Target: 18.9 percent or less of schools located within 500 feet
Target-Setting Method: Maintain consistency with national programs, regulations, policies, and laws.
Data Source: Geospatial Research, Analysis and Services Program (GRASP), CDC/ATSDR
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Global Environmental Health

Baseline: 2,200,000 deaths were caused by poor water quality, sanitation, and insufficient hygiene in 2004
Target: 2,000,000 deaths
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD), Consortium including Harvard University, University of Washington, Johns Hopkins University, University of Queensland, and the World Health Organization
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Healthy People 2010 The HP2010 objective with the same definition was 08-29.
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