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Maternal, Infant, and Child Health

Latest Data

Explore the latest data for the LHI topic Maternal, Infant, and Child Health.
Download the latest Infant Death data in spreadsheet format [XLSX - 381 KB]
Explore the latest Preterm Birth data using DATA2020

Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going

From 2000 to 2010, the total percentage of live births that were delivered preterm increased by 3.4%, from 11.6% of live births to 12.0%. However, the rate declined 5.5% between 2007 (12.7%) and 2010. In 1999, the infant mortality rate was 7.0 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared with a rate of 6.4 in 2009. During the decade, the infant mortality rate decreased by 8.6%. Compared with the overall rates, several groups experienced lower rates of infant deaths and preterm births, including female infants, infants of Asian or Pacific Islander mothers, or infants of married mothers. Also, higher infant mortality rates were experienced by infants born at a low birth weight.

Leading Health Indicators

Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator.
Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)
Preterm births (MICH-9.1)

Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-1.3 tracks the rate of infant deaths per 1,000 live births that occur within the first year of life (infant mortality rate).
    • HP2020 Baseline: In 2006, 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births occurred within the first year of life.
    • HP2020 Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 10 percent improvement over the baseline.
    • o Over the past decade, the infant mortality rate decreased by 8.6% between 1999 and 2009, from 7.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to 6.4.
  • Among racial/ethnic groups, infants of Asian or Pacific Islander mothers had the lowest mortality rate, 4.4 per 1,000 live births in 2009.
    • The mortality rates experienced by infants of black or African American non-Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, white non-Hispanic, and Hispanic mothers were 12.4, 8.5, 5.3, and 5.3 per 1,000 live births, respectively.
    • The rate for infants of black or African American non-Hispanic mothers was nearly three times the infant mortality rate of the best group; and the rate for infants of American Indian or Alaska Native mothers was almost twice the best group rate.

    Rate of Infant Deaths by Race/Ethnicity (of Mother), 2009

    Accessible Version

    NOTE: Includes all deaths < 1 year. American Indian includes Alaskan Native. Asian includes Pacific Islander. The categories black and white exclude persons of the Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be any race.
    SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System–Mortality and Natality (NVSS–M, NVSS–N), CDC, NCHS.

  • Females had a lower infant mortality rate than males (5.8 versus 7.0 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009).
  • Infants of married mothers experienced a lower mortality rate than infants of unmarried mothers (4.9 versus 8.6 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009).
  • Infants of mothers aged 30–34 years experienced the lowest infant mortality rate, 5.1 per 1,000 live births in 2009, among age groups. Rates experienced by infants of mothers in other age groups were:
    • 15.3 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged less than 15 years; three times the best group rate.
    • 9.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 15–19 years; nearly twice the rate experienced by the best group.
    • 7.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 20–24 years; about one and a half times the best group rate.
    • 5.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 25–29 years.
    • 6.2 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 35 years and older.
  • The infant mortality rate was 8.6% lower in 2009 (6.4) than in 1999 (7.0).
  • The infant mortality rate was 4.5% lower in 2009 (6.4) than in 2006 (6.7), the HP2020 baseline year.

Endnotes:

  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms "Hispanic or Latino" and "Hispanic" are used interchangeably in this report.

Preterm births (MICH-9.1)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-9.1 tracks the percentage of infants born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation).
    • HP2020 Baseline: 12.7 percent, or over half a million live births, were preterm in 2007.
    • HP2020 Target: 11.4 percent of live births, a 10 percent improvement over the baseline.
    • Between 2000 and 2010, the total preterm birth rate increased by 3.4%, from 11.6 percent of live births to 12.0 percent. However, the rate declined 5.5% between 2007 and 2010, from 12.7 to 12.0 percent.
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the lowest percentage of preterm live births delivered in 2010 was experienced by Asian or Pacific Islander mothers (10.7).
    • The proportion of preterm live births delivered to black or African American non-Hispanic mothers was 17.1% in 2010, more than one and a half times the rate experienced by the best group.
    • Rates for American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic, and white non-Hispanic mothers in 2010 were 13.6, 11.8, and 10.8 percent, respectively.
  • A smaller percentage of females were delivered preterm than males (11.5 versus 12.5 in 2010).

Total Preterm Births by Sex, 2010

A smaller percentage of females were delivered preterm than males.

NOTE: Less than 37 completed weeks of gestation.
SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System–Natality (NVSS–N), CDC, NCHS.

  • The percentage of married mothers delivering preterm live births was lower than unmarried mothers (10.8 versus 13.7 in 2010).
  • Mothers aged 25–29 years experienced the lowest percentage of preterm births, 11.0 in 2010, among age groups. Percentages experienced by mothers in other age groups were:
    • 21.8 percent of the live births among mothers aged less than 15 years were preterm; about twice the rate experienced by the best group.
    • 13.5 percent of the live births among mothers aged 15–19 years were preterm.
    • 11.9 percent of the live births among mothers 20–24 years were preterm.
    • 11.4 percent of the live births among mothers aged 30–34 years were preterm.
    • 14.1 percent of the live births among mothers aged 35 years and older were preterm.

Endnotes:

  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms "Hispanic or Latino" and "Hispanic" are used interchangeably in this report.

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